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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blolech, v.r.s.(penis) made erect.
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cheleokl, v.r.s.having something stuck in throat; (machine) broken.
cheleokl a mla mecheokl; merekeklii a tungd, ngar er ngii a tungd er a omerkolel; cheleokl a telemall el mesil; bilas a cheleokl.
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kliis, v.r.s.(ground) dug/scratched in (by chicken); opened or unlocked; (clock, watch) wound.
kliis a mla mekiis; kliokl; debull a kliis, kiesii el mo delluchel, kmiis, mengiis, kisel a debull.
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nglidel, v.r.s.lifted out of water.
nglidel a mla mengidel; odoim a nglidel; ngidelii a ngikel; bub a nglidel.
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uldor, v.r.s.shaded; sheltered.
uldor a mla mudor; ngar er ngii a blil; telenget er a chull me a sils; mderengii, uderengel.
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ulekesebakl, v.r.s.(fingers) snapped; (hands) clapped.
ulekesebakl a kesebakl; mokesebakl a chimal; okesebeklii; okesebakl a chimal el omrotech; kosebakl a ngerel el oungeroel; kesebeklel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

deromel, v.a.s.is to be sharpened.
deromel a kirel el medorm; doremii a oles; duorem a oluches, merorem, deremel.
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kedall, v.a.s.(sea cucumber) is to be rolled/rubbed in ashes (to remove bad-tasting outer membrane).
kedall a kirel el mekad; kmad a cheremrum, mengad a irimd, ngmai a mekool er a budel; kedil a cheremrum.
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odngelall, v.a.s.is to be visited.
odngelall a kirel el modingel; odngelii a smecher, odingel a blai; odngelel; omes.
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ongtiall, v.a.s.is to be begged or asked for.
ongtiall a kirel el mongit; ongtil a udoud, ongtiall a udoud el ngeso er a reberriid er a eolt.
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sbedall, v.a.s.(coconut tree) is to have cut re-opened to re-initiate sap flow.
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sikesall, v.a.s.(raft, canoe, etc.) is to be poled.
sikesall a kirel el mesikes; sikesii a mlai; smikes, melikes a brer; sikesel a brer.
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utiil, v.a.s.is to be put over fire; is to be put or placed; is to be pounded into ground.
utiil a ngklel a irimd. utiil a klalo el kirel el mouat; omat a irimd; melai a mekoll er a budel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chiukl(singing) voice.cheiukl(person) having a good singing voice.
kerisgoiter.kerisgoiter.
chetbaelelephantiasis.chetbael swollen from elephantiasis.
bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).bisechfish with black and yellow stripes (makes mouth itchy).
smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).
chadliver.chedengaolsick with jaundice.
baikingdisease; germs.baikingdisease; germs.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
cheberdil a rengulobject of one's feelings/affections.
urrechomel a rengulindecisive.
mesubed a rengulaccept; be resigned to; learn a lesson; learn from experience.
omichoech a rengul(stomach) grumble, talk or gurgle (especially from hunger); (person) feel excited.
bekesbesib a rengulprone to sweating; easily angered; touchy.
komeklii a rengul(person) controlling themselves; (person) holding their tongue.
uldellomel a rengulresponsible; purposeful; mature.

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