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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blul, v.r.s.regulated; restricted.
blul a ngar ngii a bul, blul a er a uel a llach el diak le ngeiul a uel, blul a belochel el diak le beakl.
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chelemcham, v.r.s.broken into pieces.
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chelemus, v.r.s.amputated; (person) having amputated limb.
chelemus a delebes; delebokl, chumsengii a chimal, chelemsengel.
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chelerrungel, v.r.s.made whole; completed; perfected.
chelerrungel a mla mecherrungel; churungel, mla mo merek, temek er a urreor a chelerrungel.
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ngelmors, v.r.s.extracted; picked or pulled out.
ngelmors a mla mengmors; mengai er a ulechull; ngelmors a bambuu; ngimersii a oluches; ngimersel.
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ultaut, v.r.s.(spear, gun, etc.) aimed at target; (law) enforced; (fire) lighted; (job) started; hooked.
ultaut a mla motaut; uluchel, urreor a ultaut, ngau a ultaut.
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urrodech, v.r.s.buttoned; inlaid.
urrodech a mla murodech; ngar ngii a urdechel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chemuul, v.a.s.about to be broken in two.
chemuul a kirel el mecham; kerrekar a chemuul; chomur, chuam a sengsongd, chemul.
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cherirall, v.a.s.is to be caught up with; (hair, etc.) is to be cut to same length.
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kongall, v.a.s.(boat) is to be placed on supports.
kongall a kirel el mekoi; mo er a koi; mlai a kongall.
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ochidall, v.a.s.is to be messed up.
ochidall a kirel el mochoid, mochetekl, klalo er a skoki a ochidall el osiik a mekull er a llach el klalo.
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ongokall, v.a.s.is to be whistled to.
ongokall a kirel el mongaok ongaok a ngaok, ongokel.
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techull, v.a.s.is to be carried on the head.
techull a kirel el metuchel; kukau a techull er a mesei; tuchelii a kall; tmuchel, meluchel, techelel.
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uklsechall, v.a.s.is to be wished luck.
uklsechall a kirel el muklusech; omeklusech er ngii; meklsechii; mo ungil besul; mo melusech; ukbechel
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

chetaubrief rain squall.chetaubrief rain squall.
rekungland crab.bekerekungsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs, etc.).
iitmiss; failure.iitpast; over (with); finished; through.
chedeadjellyfish; nettle.chedead not knowing where to go.
kerdikyaws; framboesia.kerdiksuffering from yaws.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient; not enough; few.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

omech er a rengultake the edge of one's hunger.
tngeklel a rengulpeace offering for someone.
olsarech er a rengulhold in or control emotions, anger etc.
omai er a rengulhesitate; be unsure about.
ngemokel a renguldesirous off; lusting after.
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.
betik er a rengulone's beloved.

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