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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelsechosm, v.r.s.dented all over (from tapping).
chelsechosm a ulduum e betok a blet er ngii; terretirem; ulduum, chelsechosm el olekang.
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iliuch, v.r.s.opened; cut open.
iliuch a mla meiiuuch, ruul el diak el telenget, iuechii a mengur, imiuch, iuechel a tuna
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klikai, v.r.s.(distance or course) swum.
klikai a mla mekikai; klikai a meteu el toachel; koikai, kikiul a cheroid.
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telik, v.r.s.struck with the fist.
telik a mla metik; tikir a kboub, tmik, melik, tkil a kboub.
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telkakl, v.r.s.propped up; supported; kneeling.
telkakl a delisakl; mla metkakl me ng mesisiich; tukeklii a blai, tukakl a chimal er a tebel; tkeklel.
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ulchubel, v.r.s.spilled; bored out; (drink) poured.
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ulekedong, v.r.s.called.
ulekedong a mla mokedong; mla oleker er ngii; beluu a ulekedong er a cheldecheduch.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

blechall, v.a.s.is to be mixed or dissolved.
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chimkemkall, v.a.s.is to be covered over with (blanket, clothes, leave, etc.); (forest) choked with vegetation (and difficult to pass through).
chimkemkall a kirel el mechimkomk; dokedekii, medekedek, imkemkii a smecher er a bar, mengimkomk, chimkemkel.
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kitall, v.a.s.is to be pressed with fingers and massaged; is to be pressed against surface with fingers; is to be softened.
kitall a kirel mekit; mengit er ngii; omet el mesisiich.
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ongesengesall, v.a.s.is to be obeyed.
ongesengesall a kirel el morenges, llach er a buai a ongesengesall.
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otirall, v.a.s.is to be chased.
otirall a oteil.
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tebetball, v.a.s.(long object) is to be divided or split into small pieces, strips, etc.
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ukall, v.a.s.is to be cut or pushed down.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
uidfruit that has fallen off the tree on its own.udall(fishnet) is to be pulled in.
cherollbirth; birthday.ulemcheroll(woman) having already borne children.
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.delibuksurechorech(knot) tied securely so as not be loosened.
chudelgrass.chudelgrass.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedsmall sea crab.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
orrechorech a rengulextremely angry; wild with anger.
bekongesengasech a renguleasily angered; excitable.
chidirengulchaidirengul
betachel a rengulis to be pleased/satisfied/appeased; content.
medengelii a rengulregain consciousness (after a faint or stroke); (person) self-confident or self-assured; (person) knowing his abilities or capacities.
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.

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