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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bliongel, v.r.s.divided; distributed; separated; separate.
bliongel a blii; mla obii, bliongel er a kall, blingelel a udoud, rusel, bingel.
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blkobk, v.r.s.peeled (off).
blkobk a nglai a budel; mla obkobk; mkebkii, mkobk a tuu, bkebkel.
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cheleseb, v.r.s.(taro tubers) cut.
cheleseb a mla mecheseb, chosebii, cheleseb el dait a ileakl er a kukau, mla medebes.
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chelsekl, v.r.s.cooked with spices.
chelsekl a mla mechesekl; kall el delul er a bebul a deel; choseklii, chosekl a diokang, mengesekl, cheseklel.
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chelubs, v.r.s.ongraol stolen from garden, etc..
chelubs a mla mechubs; chubsii; dellomel el rrechorech er a mesei, chebsel a kukau.
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delibuk, v.r.s.tied into knot.
delibuk a mla medibuk; omech a eru el klalo; melibuk a odak a erung e doibuk el mo tang el blech, delibkolel.
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uldars, v.r.s.lifted up; (arm, leg) stretched or extended.
uldars a mla modars; oba chimal el mo er a bab; odersii a chimal, odars a udoud, odersel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

berechall, v.a.s.is to be dipped into sauce, etc..
berechall a kirel el obarech, merechii, marech a chimal er a ralm, berechel.
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cheridall, v.a.s.is to be removed to a distance or moved away.
cheridall a kirel mo cheroid; diak le keed, choridii, choroid; babii a cheridall er a blai; cheridel.
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chioll, v.a.s.is to be waited for.
chioll a kirel el mechiil; merreder a chioll er a cheldecheduch, choielii., olsingch er ngii.
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ngbatel, v.a.s.(clothes; etc.) are to be taken off; is to be pulled out/freed/absolved.
ngbatel a kirel el mengubet; mekedoked a lechetel; ngubetii er a cheliseksikd; nguubet a okul; a ouak a ngbatel.
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oimimall, v.a.s.is to be lowered; (boat) is to be moved out to deep water; (food) is to be brought to meteet.
oimimall a kirel el moimoim; oimimii a bilas el mo er a dmolech; oimoim, olimoim, oimimel; mo er a eou. oimimel; oimimel a oimoim er ngii; olimoim.
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songesongel, v.a.s.(coconut tree) is to be tapped for sap.
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tbaol, v.a.s.is to be spat on.
tbaol a kirel el metub; tub, tbal, tubar, ng diak el tbaol a smengt.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otordblunt-headed parrot fish.
uesvision; sight; view.sekoesperceptive; sharp-minded; acute; sensitive; aware of one's responsibilities or surroundings; capable of looking at something thoroughly or seeing all the angles and possibilities.
cheolubarnacles.cheolu covered with barnacles.
martilionghammer.martiliongclumsy; ungraceful; untalented; (person) blunt or hard-hitting (in his words).
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.delibuksurechorech(knot) tied securely so as not be loosened.
otangcheek.bekotangelhave fat cheeks.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechas

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
omekerrau er a rengulconfuse; puzzle.
telematel a rengulpleased; happy.
cheldeng a rengulconfused; surprised; stubborn; dull-witted; slow (in understanding).
sisiokel a rengulfastidious; particular.
mellomes a rengulsmart; diligent.
melemalt a rengulfair; just; understanding; good-hearted.
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.

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