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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheliroir, v.r.s.caught up with; (hair, etc.) cut to same length.
cheliroir a osisiu a klemanget; kmoir a cheiul, choiririi, cheliroir a sngoselild.
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delebedebek, v.r.s.thought about; remembered.
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delibuk, v.r.s.tied into knot.
delibuk a mla medibuk; omech a eru el klalo; melibuk a odak a erung e doibuk el mo tang el blech, delibkolel.
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selibas, v.r.s.tripped; hindered.
selibas a mla mesibas; selibas er a urrutel; soibesengii, soibas a ochil; sibesengel.
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ulchit, v.r.s.advanced past; defeated.
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ulekchubs, v.r.s.(having been) healed.
ulekchubs a mla mukar el mo mechubs; mla mo diak a telemall er ngii; cheltechat a ulekchubs.
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ultngakl, v.r.s.rejected; returned; declined; pushed back.
ultngakl a mla motngakl; ulluut; dimlak a kengei; otngakl a udoud mloluut; otngeklii, otngeklel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chebill, v.a.s.to be carried under the arm.
chebill a kiukuall; kirel el mechabl; choblii a ngalek; chuabl, a ngalek a chebill; cheblel.
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cheladel, v.a.s.easily consoled.
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demedemekall, v.a.s.is to be softened, weakened, tenderized or calmed.
demedemakall a ruoll el mo medemedemek; ngeliokl el brak a demedemekall, domedemekii, domedemek, demedemekel.
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kekesuul, v.a.s.is to be scratched (because itchy).
kekesuul a kirel el mekekas; mengkas er ngii, kukesur a mekekad, kokas a bedengel, kekesul a bedengel.
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ngemall, v.a.s.is to be smoothed or stroked.
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sebsall, v.a.s.is to be sprinkled, sprayed or watered.
sebsall a sbukl; kirel el mesubs; suubs a dellomel, subsii, melubs er a ralm; sebsel.
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tebudel, v.a.s.is to be skinned/scraped.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

olechutellarge bamboo raftolechutellarge bamboo raft
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangettall; long (in time or dimension).
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.oteklikllying down with feet in air.
otangcheek.bekotangelhave fat cheeks.
martilionghammer.martiliongclumsy; ungraceful; untalented; (person) blunt or hard-hitting (in his words).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

bechelechelingaol a rengulselfish; greedy; stingy; self-centered.
dmeu a rengulhappy; glad; joyful; appreciative.
tngeklel a rengulpeace offering for someone.
bekesbesib a rengulprone to sweating; easily angered; touchy.
omeksebek er a rengulworry (deliberately).
ultebechel a rengulhonest; mature and responsible.
songerenger a rengulhave a strong desire for; lust after.

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