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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelituuk, v.r.s.repaired; arranged; fixed; adjusted.
chelituuk a ouedikel a le mechiuaiu. chelituuk a mengituuk; osiik a rolel; mengedechuul, choitukii a mesil el mo ungil, choituuk, chitukel a mechut el mlai.
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chelsuloul, v.r.s.burned thoroughly.
chelsuloul a mla mechas; delul el mo imis; mechesuloul, chosululii, chosuloul a ngikel, chesululel.
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delibuk, v.r.s.tied into knot.
delibuk a mla medibuk; omech a eru el klalo; melibuk a odak a erung e doibuk el mo tang el blech, delibkolel.
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rriik, v.r.s.swept.
rriik a kliut; mla meriik; mekesokes a rriik, riekii, remiik.
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uldeod, v.r.s.repaired; re-attached.
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ulecheuekl, v.r.s.held or put behind one; hidden.
ulecheuekl a ngar a mocheuekl; meringel el moues; blik a ulecheuekl.
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ulsisechakl, v.r.s.taught; instructed; trained.
ulsisechakl a a meduch; mla mosisechakl; ulekrael, ulsisechakl er a mera el tekoi, ulsisecheklel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bitekill, v.a.s.is to be turned around or inside out or upside down.
bitekill a kirel el obitokl; miteklii a mlai; biteklel, chelebuul a bebitekill, a lta e ng kuk obitokl el ekong.
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chetuul, v.a.s.(fish) smoked; having the potential of giving off too much smoke.
chetuul a kirel el mechat; techa mengat a ngikel? chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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imekill, v.a.s.is to be loosened.
imekill a kirel el mo mimokl; imeklii a delibuk, mo diak le kes a lechetel a chim, imeklel.
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ngemekill, v.a.s.is to be climbed on.
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ngetachel, v.a.s.is to be cleaned, scrubbed or washed.
ngetachel a kirel el mengatech; ngotechii; ngmatech a mlai; ngetechel.
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titall, v.a.s.is to be pierced (open).
titall a kirel el metit; tmit a ilumel el mengur; melit, titir, titil.
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udechemall, v.a.s.is to be caught or captured.
udechemall a kirel el mudechem; kirel el motoir el moreked; mdechemii a malk; mdechem a babii, udechemel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
oreomelforest; woods.chereomeloreomel
cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.
tebekbukrayfish.tebekbuk(skin of shin) rough.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).
lusechluck.melusechalways lucky.
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraom (fish) slightly spoiled.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallPalauan money in form of green or blue glass beads.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
ngellitel a rengulchoosy.
ochemchuml a rengulseething inside with anger or hate.
mereng er a rengulplease; go along with (so as not to hurt feelings).
derengulalso, used a as friendly expression of envy.
seitak a rengul(person is) very choosy; picky.
ralmetaoch a rengulinsensitive; not easily affected; easygoing; casual; prone to avoiding responsibility.
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.

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