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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheleed, v.r.s.sewn, stitched or fixed temporarily; pushed.
cheleed a mla mecheed; chemedii a mlai, chemeed a bail, mengeed, chedel a mechut el bail.
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rrutech, v.r.s.touched.
rrutech a mla merutech; loia chimal er ngii; rutechii, remutech.
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seleches, v.r.s.pecked at.
seleches a kerriu; kliok; bobai a seleches er a kiuid, sichesii; smeches.
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telacheb, v.r.s.wounded/pricked with spine of fish.
telacheb a mla metacheb; telacheb er a ngikel.
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telok, v.r.s.(toe) stubbed; (wood) planed against grain.
telok a ultok; diak el ungil; diak el ngar er a urebetellel a tekoi; telok el cheldecheduch.
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uliit, v.r.s.deflected; turned away.
uliit a mla moiit; mla imiit er a rael; diak lokiu a rolel; cheleuid a osisecheklel er a ochur a uliit, ietel a osisechakl.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bedechall, v.a.s.is to be picked up with fingers.
bedechall a kirel el obodech, medechii a odoim, modech a kall el olab a cheldingel.
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bidall, v.a.s.are to be travelled between.
bidall a kirel el oboid; omoid, merael a beluu, midii, bidel
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cheterebsall, v.a.s.is to be spun or turned.
cheterebsall a kirel el mecheterbis; choterbisur, choterbis a chebis, mengeterbis, cheterebisul.
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kesiil, v.a.s.(coconut or taro) is to be grated or scraped.
kesiil a kirel el mekes; menges a lius, kesiil a kles er a klechedaol, kosir, kmes a kles, kesil.
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ongchengchall, v.a.s.is to be dropped down from tree; (restriction) is to be removed.
ongchengchall a kirel el mongchongch; ongchengchii a bul er a uel; mo diak a bul el telkib, ongchengchel.
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orolall, v.a.s.(animal) is to be led; (boat, car etc.) is to be driven.
orolall a oreall, orolel.
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otechall, v.a.s.is to be pierced or drilled through.
otechall a kirel el motoech, otechii a ungil el uldasu, otoech a mederir, otechel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
choalechsea urchin.choalech(head) having bristly hair.
kullcyst; tumor.kullcyst; tumor.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechashaving the qualities of an old woman.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedhusked.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutauPalau morning bird.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
rengul a ngaisyolk of egg.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
becheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
rengulhis/her/its heart; spirit; feeling; soul; seat of emotions.
oltamet er a rengulpull at someone's heartstrings; mean a lot to someone.
ouedikel a rengulnervous; worried.
meleolt a rengul(person) carefree or nonchalant; (person) not easily disturbed or content to let things happen as they may.

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