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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cherroid, v.r.s.removed to a distance; moved away.
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teleu, v.r.s.widened; opened wide; (legs) spread; unfinished.
teleu a blok; teleu a chesimer; tmengii a ngerel, diak el blutek; tengel.
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uldengelengel, v.r.s.sent or thrown down slope; sailed downwind.
uldengelengel a urrebet er a eou; mla modengelengel; odengelengelel a mlai.
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uliub, v.r.s.sneaked away from; hidden from.
uliub a mla moiub; mla mecheuid; oibngii a ngalek; mengeuid er ngii; cheleuid; ngar a "Ngetecheuid".
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ultirakl, v.r.s.followed; pursued.
ultirakl a mla motirakl; llach a ultirakl; llach a ulengesenges er a remekedngil a beluu; otireklel a llach.
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uluked, v.r.s.(fish) caught by casting net.
uluked a mla meuked; mekebud a uluked er a chelii.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bitekill, v.a.s.is to be turned around or inside out or upside down.
bitekill a kirel el obitokl; miteklii a mlai; biteklel, chelebuul a bebitekill, a lta e ng kuk obitokl el ekong.
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chiutekill, v.a.s.is to be wrung out or twisted.
chiutekill a kirel el mechiuetokl; mengiud, chiuteklii, choiuetokl a selokel.
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kloaol, v.a.s.is to be grabbed at and squeezed or kneaded; (taro patch) is to be prepared.
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redemall, v.a.s.is to have handle put on; is to be installed or attached.
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tetekill, v.a.s.is to be plucked or torn off; is to be pulled at.
tetekill a kirel el metetekakl; toteklii a dui; meltekakl er ngii, totekakl a okul a ert, teteklel.
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ukdertall, v.a.s.is to be dried out.
ukedertall a kirel el mukdirt; mo diak el dekimes; mekdertii, mekdirt a bail, ukdertel a bail.
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usesuall, v.a.s.is to be obtain through barter or trade.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
brotechclapping; wooden paddle used as war weapon; applause; praise.bekebrotechprone to slapping.
chaisnews.merael a chiselwell-known; famous; infamous; (person) popular. (news) spreading quickly.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedhaving skin covered with white spots.
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merir(leaves) yellow.
rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.rubakhaving the qualities of an old man.
rasechblood.rasechblood.
chullrain; rainy season.chullrain; rainy season.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
mesisiich a rengulstrong-willed; motivated; determined; hard-working.
ouedikel a rengulnervous; worried.
sengok a rengulcurious.
melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
ulserechakl a rengulcalm; unexcitable.
nguibes a renguldesirous of; lusting after.

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