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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelokl, v.r.s.scolded.
chelokl a mla mechokl; mla choklii; oungeroel, mengokl, aki di chelokl el rokui.
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cheltiut, v.r.s.(headwear) put on; inserted; impaled.
cheltiut a mla mechetiut; ultuu; ulsiseb, cheltiut a oecherel e omais er a ulaol.
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kellemekl, v.r.s.(breath) held; (desire) controlled or restrained.
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telaod, v.r.s.(sardines) caught between prongs of spear; (fish) speared; (lice) combed out; (legs) placed astraddle.
telaod a mla metaod; tmodii a kelel; tmaod a meas; telaod a rengul a betok a uldesuel; todel.
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ulengill, v.r.s.knocked down or off.
ulengill a mla mongill; ulengill el orebet; olengill, ongill a iedel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chelochall, v.a.s.is to be masturbated.
chelochall a sebechel el mechelooch; beras a chelochall.
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chesenguul, v.a.s.is to be occupied or busy.
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chesuchall, v.a.s.is to be given tortoise shell money.
chesuchall a kirel el mechesiuch; chosuchii a buchelsechal, mengesiuch, msa chesuchel.
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doechel, v.a.s.is to be cut or wounded.
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osengerengerall, v.a.s.is to be allowed to go hungry.
osengerengerall a kirel el mosengerenger; uasech a osengerengerall el mo urrekerek; osengerengerel.
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sibesongel, v.a.s.is to be tripped or hindered.
sibesongel a olibesongel; ngii di le ngera el melibas; tetuk el kerrekar a sibesongel er a rael; mesaik el chad a sibesongel er a urreor.
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tngekill, v.a.s.is to be appeased or consoled
tngekill a kirel el metngakl; kirel el mengunguuch; tingeklii a rengul a meltord; locha tngakireng; tngeklel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

kikoisea clam.merikikoiwavy; bulging in places.
kobesossea horse.kobesos (head) long, narrow or pointed.
bukcorner; angle; joint; node.bkebkuulhaving many nodes; rough-edged; (shin of leg) have bumpy surface.
bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).bisechfish with black and yellow stripes (makes mouth itchy).
butgenitals; anus; vagina; bottom (surface).bekebut(woman) having large buttocks or vagina; (man) having large buttocks.
kerdikyaws; framboesia.kerdikyaws; framboesia.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

meses a rengulindustrious; diligent.
moded a rengul(person is) easygoing/even-tempered.
ngelekel a rengulfavorite child.
mekurt a rengul(someone's) feelings hurt.
meduch a rengulhard-working; conscientious; strong-willed; persevering.
komeklii a rengul(person) controlling themselves; (person) holding their tongue.
menglou er a rengultry to make (someone, oneself) patient; assure; take edge of one's hunger.

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