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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berruud, v.r.s.torn/pulled off.
berruud a mla oberuud; nglubet el cheroid, mla meruud a chesimer, berudel.
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cheldermaot, v.r.s.(water) stirred or agitated.
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delechors, v.r.s.(penis) made erect; stimulated.
delechors a dechors.
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delidai, v.r.s.accompanied; braided.
delidai a mla medidai; melidai a odak a edei el kakeakl e doidai el mo tang, chui a delidai.
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deliukes, v.r.s.(food) divided or shared.
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uldiuls, v.r.s.hidden in bushes, etc.
uldiuls a mla modiuls; berrotel er a delul a kerrekar, ngar er a delul a betok el klalo; osib a uldiuls er a tkul a sers; odilsel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chebuul, v.a.s.is to be given gift (sometimes, out of pity); is to be bribed.
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chiuall, v.a.s.is to be read or looked at closely.
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kersall, v.a.s.is to be pulled, towed or dragged.
kersall a krukl; kirel el mekurs; kursii a mlai, otemetii, kmurs a kerrekar.
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ltukel, v.a.s.(someone) is to be remembered (because he will be a titled person).
ltukel a kirel a omelatk; ungil a omerellel el chad a ltukel; klou a omelatk el kirel; kedung el chad a ltukel, ltkel.
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rsull, v.a.s.is to be pierced, stabbed, injected or inoculated.
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ruoll, v.a.s.is to be made/done/prepared/repaired.
ruoll a kedmekill; kirel el meruul; kles a ruoll, rullii, remuul.
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utebechall, v.a.s.is to be held steady, controlled, confirmed or moored.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.
brotechclapping; wooden paddle used as war weapon; applause; praise.bekebrotechprone to slapping.
techiirhandnet with handle; cloth or screen for pressing coconut milk; sheath at base of coconut frond (used for pressing coconut milk).mekudem a techerel(person who) understands or catches everything.
cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.cheludech(wood) dried out (and light in weight).
ngelloklnodding; dozing (off).olengelloklslow-moving; sluggish.
iudoraiburent-a-car; U-drive car.iudoraiburent-a-car; U-drive car.
tengolldownward slope; descent.tengolldownward slope; descent.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
olsiich er a rengultake pleasure in someone else's pain, difficulties, problems, etc.
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
rrou a rengulsuddenly confused or perplexed.
telecherakl a rengulstubborn; obsessed; determined.
melatk a rengulconsider someone's feelings.
rengul a kerrekarcenter/core of tree.
mengerar er a rengul criticise; insult; put down; make someone feel ashamed; hurt someone's feelings.

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