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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blengedakl, v.r.s.treated inferiorly; always receiving demands.
blengedakl a omengedakl; diak le cheleoch.
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cheledaol, v.r.s.blessed; sanctified.
cheledaol a chedaol; meang, mla mechedaol; cheledolel.
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cheltoem, v.r.s.smeared or spread on.
cheltoem a chelsechusem; mla mechetoem; chotemii, chotoem er a chesbereber, mengetoem, chetemel.
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klsekes, v.r.s.(chant, lullaby, etc.) sung.
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ulchucher, v.r.s.(number, amount) increased.
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ulet, v.r.s.pressed; squeezed; (food) soft (from hitting ground).
ulet a mla mouet; lius a ulet, tul a kerebou a ulet, omet, met, meseos, omeseos.
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ulluut, v.r.s.returned; sent back.
ulluut a mla moluut; mla mengader; udoud a ulluut, olutii, oluut, olutel a udoud.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chitemetall, v.a.s.(hand) is to be closed to make fist; is to be crushed into ball.
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ochebiil, v.a.s.is to be deflected or avoided; (teeth of saw) are to be restored.
ochebiil a kirel el mochib; diak msbechii er ngii; oiur, olechib er ngii; imiit er ngii; ochebir a uetech.
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odengelengelall, v.a.s.is to be sent or thrown down slope; is to be sailed downwind.
odengelengelall a kirel modengelengel; odengelengel a kerrekar er a taoch.
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oremkall, v.a.s.(boat, etc.) is to be weighed down.
oremkall a kirel el morumek; mo ruumk; oremkii a bilas, orumek a ert er a rechad, oremkel.
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orsersall, v.a.s.is to be drowned or made to sink.
orsersall a kirel el morsors, locha er a bertakl; orsersii a mechut el diall, orechorech, orsersel.
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sechesekill, v.a.s.(distance) is to be jumped.
sechesekill a beot el mesechesokl; suchesokl er ngii; merdekekl er ngii.
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ungkill, v.a.s.is to be named.
ungkill a kirel el mungakl; mngeklii, loia a ngklel; omngakl er ngii; tolechoi a ungkill.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.
chadliver.chedengaolhave a large liver.
siktcluster/bunch of fruit.berikt(tree) productive or bearing much fruit.
riamelfootball fruit (Pangi; Payan).bekeriamelsmell like football fruit; sweaty; have a strong body odor (especially, as result of diet or poor hygiene).
smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).smuuch(person) calm, placid, or unperturbed by problems or challenging circumstances.
oreomelforest; woods.chereomeloreomel
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraom (fish) slightly spoiled.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mechas a rengulbe surprised at.
merechorech a rengulselfish; greedy; stingy.
ouedikel a rengulnervous; worried.
olturk a rengulsatiate; make someone give up (from fatigue); get one's fill of; insult continuously or mercilessly; let someone really have it.
uldalem a rengulresponsible; purposeful.
melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
kikiongel a rengul(person is) obstinate/uncooperative; sullen.

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