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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blikaks, v.r.s.(ground of garden, etc.) broken or softened.
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derrau, v.r.s.(fish) caught with a hand net.
derrau a merrau a ngikel; betok el chad el dmak el merrau. .
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kldib, v.r.s.hit with rapid slap of hand.
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selib, v.r.s.(ground) broken, plowed or dug.
selib a mla mesib; sibur; sers a selib; mesib, sbul; ulecholo.
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selloakl, v.r.s.grabbed at and shaken or stirred.
selloakl a mla meseloakl; mla mesalo; rrutech er a betok el chim; selloakl el kall a olsecher; soleueklii; solouakl.
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ulchelochel, v.r.s.has had object come at one.
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ulsiuekl, v.r.s.met; collided or hit into.
ulsiuekl a mla mosiuekl; klechedaol a ulsiuekl er a kerodel; osiueklii, osiuekl, osiueklel a klechedaol.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chelechall, v.a.s.is to be favored or spoiled.
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chideball, v.a.s.is to be hung onto with hands.
chideball a kirel el mechidobel, chimal a chedam a chideball er a rengelekel, choidebelii er a demal, mengidobel, chidebelel.
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chiikel, v.a.s.(leaves) are to be plucked or stripped off plant.
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chiuall, v.a.s.is to be read or looked at closely.
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okikall, v.a.s.is to be transported or brought.
okikall a kirel el mokiik; olekik; okiik a kall er a ocheraol.
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ongmengmall, v.a.s.is to be lowered slowly and carefully.
ongmengmall a kirel el mongmongm; ongmongm a cheremrum, ongmengmel, a cheremrum.
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sechesechall, v.a.s.is to be stuffed; (gun) is to be cocked or set.
sechesechall a kirel mesechesech; locha kelel a boes; melechesech, sochesech a bosir, sechesechel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadalive; living.
klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.
uloechspear(?).uloech(person) in a hurry to go somewhere.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaumorning; this morning.
bangchbite.sekebangch(animal, person) prone to biting.
kikoisea clam.merikikoiwavy; bulging in places.
ngelloklnodding; dozing (off).olengelloklslow-moving; sluggish.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
kikiongel a rengul(person is) obstinate/uncooperative; sullen.
melemedem er a rengulcool down one's anger.
checherd a rengulimpatient; fed up with.
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.
tmuu er a rengul(something) occurs to (person)/enters (person's) mind.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.

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