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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bletech, v.r.s.having gotten thrown at; pounded; cracked.
bletech a uletech; mla obetech, mouetech, metechii a blai, metech, betechel a blai.
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dellemakl, v.r.s.(post, stick, etc.) driven into ground.
dellemakl a mla medelemakl; dechor el ultuu er a chutem; dolemeklii, dolemakl a smengt; delemeklel.
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rrukem, v.r.s.(money) split into smaller denomination; (money) exchanged.
rrukem a mla merukem; bachel a rrukem er a $1,000.00, rukemii, ruukem; rekemel.
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selaod, v.r.s.separated; explained.
selaod a lloched; mla mesaod; diak el uldak; chebechiil a selaod; rengalek me te selaod, smodii, sodel.
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selaur, v.r.s.tied together/into a bunch; bundled
selaur a mla mesaur; mla melechet, mla mesemosem, chelais a selaur; sourii, rraud, surel.
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ulekchedaol, v.r.s.made holy.
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ulekesiu, v.r.s.copied; imitated; made the same.
ulekesiu a meruul el mo ua ngii; mla mokesiu; mekesiur a bilel er a bilek; omekesiu a llecheklel a sensei; okesiul.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

butall, v.a.s.is to be piled/heaped up.
butall a kirel el obuut; mengedidai, omuut, mutii a chutem, koididai, muut a besbas, mengudel, butel.
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chederedall, v.a.s.are to be put together or into order; are to be arranged.
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debedeball, v.a.s.is to be weighed.
debedeball a debedabel
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sikesall, v.a.s.(raft, canoe, etc.) is to be poled.
sikesall a kirel el mesikes; sikesii a mlai; smikes, melikes a brer; sikesel a brer.
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tengdall, v.a.s.is to be pricked (from tungd).
tengdall a kirel el metungd; tungdii a medudes er a buld; tmungd a bduu; tengdel.
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tuul, v.a.s.is to be heated or cooked lightly; is to be heated so as to become bendable; is to be rubbed or massaged.
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udall, v.a.s.(fishnet) is to be pulled in.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chadliver.chedengaolsick with jaundice.
brakgiant yellow swamp taro.brakgiant yellow swamp taro.
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.delibuksurechorech(knot) tied securely so as not be loosened.
baikingdisease; germs.baikingdisease; germs.
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadalive; living.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
sesuul a rengul(person) undecided.
meched a rengulthirsty; impatient; prone to overreact; (deprived and) having strong desire for.
mederdirk a rengulfeel scorn for.
mesubed a rengulaccept; be resigned to; learn a lesson; learn from experience.
orrechorech a rengulextremely angry; wild with anger.
mekeald a rengulfeel hot inside.
melekoi a renguldetermined; well-motivated; make rasping or humming sound in the lungs; make humming moise while sleeping; (cat) purr.

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