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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

deludeu, v.r.s.bent in many places.
deludeu a betok el deleu; mla medudeu, dour, dmeu a mamed, deul.
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rredekekl, v.r.s.(distance) jumped.
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telabd, v.r.s.skinned; scraped
telabd a telebudel; mla metabd; nglai budel; telabd el malk.
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teloadel, v.r.s.(sardines) caught between prongs of spear; split or divided (naturally); (tongue) forked.
teloadel a telaod; telaod a rengul a betok a uldesuel.
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uliit, v.r.s.deflected; turned away.
uliit a mla moiit; mla imiit er a rael; diak lokiu a rolel; cheleuid a osisecheklel er a ochur a uliit, ietel a osisechakl.
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uliubek, v.r.s.broken or smashed through.
uliubek a mla moiubek; lling; ngar ngiia metetoech; chesimer a uliubek; oibekii, oiubek, oibekel.
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ulsechomel, v.r.s.hiding in fear; cowering in fear; (bird with) folded wings (due to fear).
More Examples:
> That bird is cowering with folded wings.
> The boy is hiding in his house because the police are looking for him.

 

Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bliil, v.a.s.is to be regulated or restricted.
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chemechemuul, v.a.s.is to be broken into pieces.
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ltukel, v.a.s.(someone) is to be remembered (because he will be a titled person).
ltukel a kirel a omelatk; ungil a omerellel el chad a ltukel; klou a omelatk el kirel; kedung el chad a ltukel, ltkel.
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odeleball, v.a.s.is to be dipped into water.
odeleball a morsors er a daob; kirel moduleb; odelebii; olduleb er a daob, odelebel.
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rengetall, v.a.s.is to be chewed or crushed.
rengetall a kirel el meringet; ringetii a kall, rengotel, reminget; rengetel.
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uksoangel, v.a.s.is to be made used to or trained.
uksoangel a kirel el muksau; omeksau er ngii; meruul er ngii el mo smau, mo soal; omeksau, meksongii ngalek; ngalek a uksoangel er a urreor; uksongel.
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ulochall, v.a.s.is to be prophesied about.
ulochall a kirel el mulaoch; omlaoch er ngii; mlochii a meringel el kodall; mlaoch a klebelung; ulochel.
See also:

 

State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.bekngiukmold; (food) moldy/mildewed.
chudelgrass.chudelmarijuana.
smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).smuuch(person) calm, placid, or unperturbed by problems or challenging circumstances.
maiscorn.maisblond.
besbastrash; rubbish; litter; debris.mekesbesiil
kerisgoiter.kerisgoiter.
kudlouse.kdaolinfested with lice.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
meched a rengulthirsty; impatient; prone to overreact; (deprived and) having strong desire for.
metitngall a rengullonesome; sad (at broken friendship).
mekngit a rengulfeel sorry/sad about; mean; inconsiderate.
chelimimuul a rengulchelimimii a rengul
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.
oltak er a renguldeceive oneself about being someone's sweetheart.
outekangel er a rengulpersevere; force (oneself) to do something.

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