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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

ilmokl, v.r.s.loosened.
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klemudel, v.r.s.(hair) cut; (shrubs, etc.) trimmed; (string, etc.) cut.
klimd a klmudel; delebes a cheiul mla mekimd, kimdii, kuimd a cheiul, kemdel.
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rrechorech, v.r.s.stolen; robbed.
rrechorech a nglai; mla merechorech a udoud, rucherechii a mlai; recherechel.
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telechelokl, v.r.s.moved or push up and away; cleared; blown up by wind.
telechelokl a blkais; mla metechelokl, mla metukouk; tucheleklii a chutem; tuchelokl a chesimer; techeleklel.
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telutk, v.r.s.pointed at; appointed.
telutk a nglilt; mla metutk; telutk el mo er a omerael; tutkii, ngar er basech; tetkel.
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ulluut, v.r.s.returned; sent back.
ulluut a mla moluut; mla mengader; udoud a ulluut, olutii, oluut, olutel a udoud.
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ulseked, v.r.s.squeezed in; crowded out.
ulseked a mla moseked; ngar a delongelel a eru el klalo el meseked; diak le medidai; ulseked er a delongelel a mlai; osekedel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

dekedakel, v.a.s.is to be cut or sliced.
dekedakel a kirel el medekodek; mesekosek, dokodek a ngikel, sokosek, melebes.
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oskeskall, v.a.s.is to be pushed vigorously.
oskeskall a kirel el moskosk; kirel elmodubech; oskeskii a cheltelaol el otebedii, cheltelaol a oskeskall; oskeskel.
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otechedall, v.a.s.is to be made to give up.
otechedall a kirel el motoched; otechedii, oltoched er ngii er a meringel el tekoi; rullii el tmoched, diak el ungil el otechedall a chad.
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simngall, v.a.s.is to be shaken.
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siokel, v.a.s.is to be looked or sought for.
siokel a kirel el mesiik; osiik er a mo menguteling er a buai; siekii; skel
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temikel, v.a.s.is to be shaved or scraped.
temikel a kirel el mengai; kirel el metamk; tomkii; tuamk a chesemel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
tutkwart on sole of foot; disease of kebui leaves.tutkpointer; pole (for picking fruit).
chuisworm; maggot.bederechuis(starchy food) spoiled (by water); decomposing or moldy.
ngulasthma.ngulasthmatic; suffering from a bout of asthma.
kobesossea horse.kobesos (head) long, narrow or pointed.
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otord(person) having protruding forehead.
chaziflavor, taste.chaziflavor, taste.
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
dmolech a rengulwise; prudent; careful in planning ahead.
keremerem a rengulstupid; ignorant.
tuobed a rengulone's real feelings come out.
mechedeng a rengulget surprised, puzzled or perplexed (by someone's behavior, etc.).
chetellaok a rengulchetellaok
olsiich er a rengultake pleasure in someone else's pain, difficulties, problems, etc.
bekesbesib a rengulprone to sweating; easily angered; touchy.

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