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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blekall, v.r.s.driven; sailed; (person) driven by desire to wander or spend time away from home.
blekall a mla obekall; mekellii a mlai, rengeasek a blekall er a ungil klebesei.
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blomk, v.r.s.pumped.
blomk a mla obomk; blomk a cheluch, memkii, bemkel.
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delik, v.r.s.supported; propped up; placed in a particular location.
delik a mla medik; loia chiull e a smecher a ultuil er ngii, dikir, dmik, smecher a delik er a dik, dkel; delik a kldoel, kled, kall a delik er a tebel, dikir a tet er a ulaol, melik er a til er a ulaol.
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nglabek, v.r.s.ironed; planed.
nglabek a mla mengabek; nglabek a bedengel el meringel; nglabek a bail, ngobekii.
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rruu, v.r.s.collected; gathered.
rruu a mla remuu; miich a rruu; nglai el rokui; rouar, remuu, rual.
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selemechokl, v.r.s.put in order; corrected; improved.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bereberall, v.a.s.is to be snatched, grabbed or seized; (land) is to be captured.
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cheseangel, v.a.s.is to be assisted by contribution of food or labor.
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chesuerngall, v.a.s.(face) is to be slapped; is to be slapped in the face.
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odengelengelall, v.a.s.is to be sent or thrown down slope; is to be sailed downwind.
odengelengelall a kirel modengelengel; odengelengel a kerrekar er a taoch.
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okesengall, v.a.s.is to be tightened.
okesengall a kirel el mokes; okesengii a lechet, okes; okesengel.
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osiseball, v.a.s.is to be put, pushed or forced in.
osiseball a kirel el mosiseb; oltuu, mekull el diak el osiseball a ice er a Belau.
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techeball, v.a.s.is to be removed/scraped up/cut out/uprooted.
techeball a techibel; kirel el metecheb; nguu a belsiich er a ngot, tochebii a nguu el rokir, nguu er a uchul.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.
maiscorn.maisblond.
tengolldownward slope; descent.tengolldownward slope; descent.
builmoon; month.builmoon; month.
semumtrochus.semum having deformed fingers or toes.
kelebusjail, prison.kelebusjail, prison.
iitmiss; failure.iitpast; over (with); finished; through.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
medemedemek a rengul kind; generous.
mesbeda a rengul(person) come to realize or accept (fact, etc.).
cheberdil a rengulobject of one's feelings/affections.
Dirrengulbaititle of feminine counterpart or assistant to chief in Imeliik.
klsbengel a rengulanger.
uldalem a rengulresponsible; purposeful.
mengesib er a rengul get someone angry.

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