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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bldikl, v.r.s.trapped; ensnared.
bldikl a mla obedikl, malk a bldikl, medeklii, bedeklel.
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chelusem, v.r.s.(mouth) wiped; (hands) wiped of dirt, food, etc.
chelusem a mla mechusem, blutek el ngor, diak lolekoi.
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rrous, v.r.s.divided up; distributed.
rrous a blii; mla merous; mii a kall er a kemeldiil; kall a rrous.
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telau, v.r.s.heated/cooked lightly; heated so as to become bendable; rubbed; massaged.
telau a mla metau; melau a cheled tmau a such; teul er a mekeald.
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uldanges, v.r.s.praised; honored.
uldanges a mla modanges; kedung a uldanges er a buai; ngmai a odanges me a chetengakl; odengesel.
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ulduleb, v.r.s.dipped into water.
ulduleb a mla moduleb; ngar er a chelsel a daob, ngalek a ulduleb er a ralm, odelebii, odelebel.
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ulkes, v.r.s.tightened.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

debdeball, v.a.s.is to be made into a drink of coconut meat and juice.
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dechall, v.a.s.(trap) is to be set.
dechall a kirel el medachel; melachel er a bub, dochelii a bedikl, dmachel, dechelel.
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ochidall, v.a.s.is to be messed up.
ochidall a kirel el mochoid, mochetekl, klalo er a skoki a ochidall el osiik a mekull er a llach el klalo.
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orengesall, v.a.s.is to be heard or listened to.
orengesall a kirel el morenges a tekingel; merreder a beluu a orengesall; remenges a llach, el. orengesel a llach.
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sebsall, v.a.s.is to be sprinkled, sprayed or watered.
sebsall a sbukl; kirel el mesubs; suubs a dellomel, subsii, melubs er a ralm; sebsel.
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sechaol, v.a.s.is to be jerked/pulled.
sechaol a kirel el mesuch; suchar a chimal, smuch, diak el sechaol a chimal a ngalek e le ng moudach.
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serochel, v.a.s.is to be stepped on, toured or visited.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merirthe color yellow.
kekeuathlete's foot; tinea.kekeuhaving athlete's foot.
karmasuuscowfish.karmasuuscowfish.
bobaipapaya tree (including fruit).bobaidull; slow-witted.
klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.
chetaubrief rain squall.chetaubrief rain squall.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
kesib a rengulangry.
omtechei a rengulget back at; do to someone as he does to you.
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.
medul a renguldisgusted with.
omekerrau er a rengulconfuse; puzzle.
chidirengulchaidirengul
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.

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