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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berrober, v.r.s.snatched; grabbed; seized; (land) captured.
berrober a mla oberober; chutem a berrober er a ulecheracheb, mereberii, merober, bereberel.
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bllebel, v.r.s.wound around with rope, cord, tape, etc.
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cheldeng, v.r.s.confused; puzzled; perplexed.
cheldeng a milkolk a rengul; diak le mesaod a tekoi er ngii.
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ileleb, v.r.s.overgrown (with foliage); flooded; under water; covered (with blanket, etc.).
ileleb a delekedek; mla meeleb; ralm iueleb a dait er a mesei; rael a ileleb er a ralm.
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kliut, v.r.s.(weeds, grass) cut; (garden, village, road, etc.) cleaned up.
kliut a mla mekiut; kluotel, nglaml e rriik; mla mekedmokl el mo mededaes; kiuetii a beluu, kmiut a blai, kutel.
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ulengaok, v.r.s.whistled to.
ulengaok a mla mongaok; mla ongokii a ngaok; ongaok, ngokel, ongokel.
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ulngebeet, v.r.s.pushed under water; (wick of lamp) turned down.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

debachel, v.a.s.is to be chopped down.
debachel a kirel el medobech; medebes, metuk, dobesii, dobechii a kerrekar, duobech a bambuu, melobech a ngikel,
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kdoel, v.a.s.is to be put or placed down.
kdoel a kirel el meked; kmedii a til, kmed a kall, menged er a tebel, kedeel a kall, lochang er a ulaol.
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kuekuall, v.a.s.is to be carried/cradled.
kuekuall a kirel el mekuoku; kiukuii a ngalek, kiuoku a babirengel, kiukuel.
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odekiaol, v.a.s.are to be added together, unified or joined.
odekiaol a kirel el modak; oldak, uldak, odekiar, odak a kakerous el uldasu; reng a odekiaol, diak lodekial el chad.
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odiderekill, v.a.s.is to be loaded into (boat, etc.).
odiderekill a kirel el modiderekl; oltak; olengasech; odiderekl er a ert, odidereklii; odidereklel.
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tkekill, v.a.s.is to be propped up or supported.
tkekill a kirel el metkakl; melisakl er a blai; tukeklii, tukakl., tkeklel.
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uklsechall, v.a.s.is to be wished luck.
uklsechall a kirel el muklusech; omeklusech er ngii; meklsechii; mo ungil besul; mo melusech; ukbechel
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chaseborash.chasebohaving rash or prickly heat.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
lalechpus.bellachelpurulent; festering; (woman's genitals) unclean and smelly; (starchy food) too soft or slimy.
tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.
singodor of sperm.besingsmell of sperm; smell unclean (esp., used in insults referring to women).
britelshakiness; jitters.britel(person) shaky/jittery.
lebfuzz (on leaf) of plant (e.g.; sugar cane; grass); plant in coffee family; shyness.meleblebitchy; prickly; covered with fuzz of plant.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
delbeseaol a rengulaimless; idle; foolish.
bebeot a rengulrather undecided about something; not taking something too seriously.
mechese a rengulbecoming surprised.
becheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
orrechorech a rengulextremely angry; wild with anger.
luut er a rengulanything causing one to lose one's resolve.
beltik a rengulbetik a rengul

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