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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelat, v.r.s.smoked (fish).
chelat a ulekmarek el ngikel er a chat; cheltuul; mla mechat, chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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chelsechosu, v.r.s.splinted.
chelsechosu a chelam; llechotel e uldak er a medecher me ng diak le medeu.
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rredall, v.r.s.(flowers; etc.) picked.
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uldeod, v.r.s.repaired; re-attached.
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ulkako, v.r.s.teased.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bekesall, v.a.s.(leg) is to be moved to walk.
bekesall a sebechel el obakes el imuu er ngii, makes, mekesii, bekesel.
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chertemall, v.a.s.is to have a sticky substance applied.
chertemall a kirel el mecheritem; chirtemii er a kar; chiritem, mengilt.
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chuomel, v.a.s.is to be wrapped in leaves or betel nut fiber and baked.
chuomel a kirel el mechuum, chuemii, chuum a ngikel.
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keradel, v.a.s.is to be nibbled, munched or bitten.
keradel a kirel el mekard; mekiok, mengiok, kordii, bobai a keradel er a beab me a kiuid, kmard, kerdel a bobai.
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kingall, v.a.s.is to be sat upon.
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okedeldaol, v.a.s.is to be carried or transmitted with care; fragile; (person, thing, matter, problem) delicate; (person, situation) requiring special care.
okedeldaol a kirel el kerekikl er ngii; mukedelad; meringel kedmekill; ngalek a okedeldaol, mekedeldar, mekedelad, okedeldal a ngalek.
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ongebetall, v.a.s.is to be pushed under water; (wick of lamp) is to be turned down.
ongebetall a kirel el mongebeet; mo kekerei e mo er eou; olengebeet a ngeriu er a seked.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
rirfallen leaves of kebui.merirthe color yellow.
oreomelforest; woods.chereomel forested; covered with vegetation.
singchwaist; pelvis; lower back.bekesingch
cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.cheballgray-haired; white-haired.
sengerengerhunger; starvation.bekesengerengerget hungry easily; always getting hungry.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaumorning; this morning.
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.delibuksurechorech(knot) tied securely so as not be loosened.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
rrau a rengulconfused/puzzled by/about.
betik er a rengulone's beloved.
kngtil a rengul(someone's) being mean or feeling sad or frustrated.
ngelekel a rengulfavorite child.
raud a rengulvariable; indecisive.
dechal a rengul perseverance; ambition; strong will.
blekebek a rengulpleasant/nice (in personality); congenial.

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