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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blingel, v.r.s.(boat) stranded by low tide or run aground.
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ilasem, v.r.s.tried out; challenged.
ilasem a mla measem; ulsemuul, esemii a ngloik, melasem.
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teloi, v.r.s.included in; among.
teloi a uldimukl; obengterir, oltoi er ngii er a seked; otongii er a omerael; otongel.
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uldoim, v.r.s.has odoim added to it; given odoim.
uldoim a ngar er ngii a odimel; uldoim a telochel, kles a uldoim; mdimii, mdoim, udimel.
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ulekdid, v.r.s.hereditary.
ulekdid a uldid; rruul a rolel; ngar ngii a did er ngii.
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ulengemai, v.r.s.carried; transported.
ulengemai a ulengakd; mla mongemai; olengakd a klalo; betok el omerael; olengemai; ongemil a klalo.
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ulkar, v.r.s.given (medicine); (fish) salted.
ulkar a mla mukar; mkerur a cheltechat; mkar a smecher el mad; ukerul a smecher el ngul.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bechall, v.a.s.(firewood) is to be split.
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chiikel, v.a.s.(leaves) are to be plucked or stripped off plant.
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derebakel, v.a.s.is to be thrust at with spear.
derebakel a kirel el mederubek; merrubek er ngii; durebekii a ochab, durubek a ducher, osiik a ngduul.
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kemedall, v.a.s.is to be sewn up.
kemedall a kirel el mekemed; melabek a mechut el klalo; komedii a bail, kuemed, kemedel a bail.
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lechengaol, v.a.s.is to be put/taken.
lechengaol a kirel el modars; kles a lechengaol er a bai; loiang, lochang.
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tbaol, v.a.s.is to be spat on.
tbaol a kirel el metub; tub, tbal, tubar, ng diak el tbaol a smengt.
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techelball, v.a.s.is to be bathed or baptized.
techelball a techelubel; kirel el metechong; melechong, tochelbii, techelbel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
mudechvomit.bekemudechsmell of vomit.
hambunghalf.hambunghalf-witted; simple-minded.
chemanglarge sea or mangrove crab; Samoan crab.bekechemangsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs).
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
chedeadjellyfish; nettle.chedead not knowing where to go.
H.O.(abbrev.) Babeldaob (used pejoratively).H.O.unexperienced in Western ways; ignorant of modern conveniences.
cherouwhite mushroom; white scar.cherouhaving a white scar; whitish; Caucasian.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
melemalt a rengulfair; just; understanding; good-hearted.
melemedem er a rengulcool down one's anger.
chelam a rengulheartbroken.
mesbesubed er a rengulprepare someone (psychologically) for something; pave the way for more serious discussion with someone; inform gradually or indirectly.
mengedidai er a rengul act stubbornly, scornfully or condescendingly.
mekngit a rengulfeel sorry/sad about; mean; inconsiderate.
derengulalso, used a as friendly expression of envy.

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