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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelaus, v.r.s.sprinkled with lime; woven.
chelaus a mla mechaus; chemelel a chelaus, mengaus, chusel a chemachel; chousii a oruikl, chemaus a tet, chusel.
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chelemochem, v.r.s.urinated on.
chelemochem a mla mechemochem; chumechemii, mengemochem er a ulaol, chemechemel.
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iliuch, v.r.s.opened; cut open.
iliuch a mla meiiuuch, ruul el diak el telenget, iuechii a mengur, imiuch, iuechel a tuna
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nglemachel, v.r.s.in a state of having chewed betel.
nglemachel a melamech; diak a buuch me ng diak de nglemachel.
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selmesumech, v.r.s.bidden farewell; given divorce payment; refused gracefully.
selmesumech a mla mesmesumech; buch a diak el selmesumech; diak a olmesmechel; mla merael.
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uldengelengel, v.r.s.sent or thrown down slope; sailed downwind.
uldengelengel a urrebet er a eou; mla modengelengel; odengelengelel a mlai.
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ultoched, v.r.s.made to give up.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bedesall, v.a.s.is to be arranged/lined up/displayed.
bedesall a kirel el obades; bedukl; omechobech; omades er a rengalek, mades, bedesel.
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betutall, v.a.s.is to be chiseled.
betutall a kirel el obetuut, ometuut, metuut a kerrekar, mtutii,betutel.
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cherotel, v.a.s.is to be defecated on.
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okesioll, v.a.s.is to be copied or imitated or made the same.
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orecherechall, v.a.s.is to be sunk.
orecherechall a kirel el morechorech; locha er a chelsel a daob; orechorech a mechut el diall; orecherechel.
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sebechekill, v.a.s.is to be defended or helped.
sebechekill a kirel el mesebechakl, sobecheklii, odesebii, ngoseuir, buik a sebechekill, sebecheklel.
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tetekill, v.a.s.is to be plucked or torn off; is to be pulled at.
tetekill a kirel el metetekakl; toteklii a dui; meltekakl er ngii, totekakl a okul a ert, teteklel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.bekerubaksmell like an old man.
bangikoibutterfly; moth.bangikoiprone to moving from one girlfriend/boyfriend to another.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient; not enough; few.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.
lalechpus.bellachelpurulent; festering; (woman's genitals) unclean and smelly; (starchy food) too soft or slimy.
kobesossea horse.kobesossea horse.
kobengodelvery strong current.kobengodel (ocean) having very strong current.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

ralmetaoch a rengulinsensitive; not easily affected; easygoing; casual; prone to avoiding responsibility.
ngmasech a rengulget angry.
chelimimii a rengulsullen; obstinate; uncooperative.
mimokl a rengulbroad-minded.
mekreos a rengulmiserly; avaricious; selfish.
meses a rengulindustrious; diligent.
omtechei a rengulget back at; do to someone as he does to you.

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