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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheleuid, v.r.s.confused; mistaken; erred.
cheleuid a diak le ngii a merang; ngodech el diak lemera el rolel, mecheuid er a belsechel a skuul, cheludul.
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cheliroir, v.r.s.caught up with; (hair, etc.) cut to same length.
cheliroir a osisiu a klemanget; kmoir a cheiul, choiririi, cheliroir a sngoselild.
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selauch, v.r.s.broken off; (child) carried at side with legs astraddle.
selauch a mla mesauch; nglai, buuch a selauch, souchii, smauch, suchel.
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telerruud, v.r.s.broken or torn or smashed down; scattered.
telerruud a telerrakl.
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ulduleb, v.r.s.dipped into water.
ulduleb a mla moduleb; ngar er a chelsel a daob, ngalek a ulduleb er a ralm, odelebii, odelebel.
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ulekbeches, v.r.s.renovated; repaired.
ulekbeches a mle mechut e meruul el mo beches; blimam a mla mukbeches; mla mekbechesur, mla mo diak el mechut; ukbechesul.
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ultngakl, v.r.s.rejected; returned; declined; pushed back.
ultngakl a mla motngakl; ulluut; dimlak a kengei; otngakl a udoud mloluut; otngeklii, otngeklel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

cheselsall, v.a.s.(chant) is to be sung.
cheselsall a kirel el mechesols; kirel el mechitakl, choselsii, chosols a cheselsir, mengesols, cheselsel.
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chuomel, v.a.s.is to be wrapped in leaves or betel nut fiber and baked.
chuomel a kirel el mechuum, chuemii, chuum a ngikel.
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kitall, v.a.s.is to be pressed with fingers and massaged; is to be pressed against surface with fingers; is to be softened.
kitall a kirel mekit; mengit er ngii; omet el mesisiich.
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oietall, v.a.s.is to be deflected or turned away.
oietall a kirel moiit; oleiit, oietii, oiit a telechull; nguu el mei er a eou; meluchel a oietall, oietel.
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otebengall, v.a.s.is to be placed on raised surface.
otebengall a kirel el motab; oltab er a remeleboteb, otebengii e merolung, otebengel.
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toadel, v.a.s.(sardines) are to be caught between prongs of a spear.
taodel a kirel el metaod; tmaod a mekebud, tmodii a kall, melaod, todel.
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ukadel, v.a.s.(fish) is to be caught by casting net.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
telengtungdwild tamarind; lead tree.telengtungdwild tamarind; lead tree.
bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).
chetbaelelephantiasis.chetbaelelephantiasis.
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebullbulging, hanging.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiong prone to moving from one boyfriend or girlfriend to another.
tebullswelling; earth mound.tebullswelling; earth mound.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedhaving skin covered with white spots.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
orrechorech a rengulextremely angry; wild with anger.
temetel a rengulpleasing of one's heart.
melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
mechitechut a rengulweak willed; unmotivated; easily discouraged.
becheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
ulsemuul a rengul(person) humble.
ngemokel a renguldesirous off; lusting after.

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