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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

delanges, v.r.s.looked up at.
delanges a mla medanges; moues er a bab; dongesii a buuch, dmanges a kebui; melanges, dengesel.
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teloadel, v.r.s.(sardines) caught between prongs of spear; split or divided (naturally); (tongue) forked.
teloadel a telaod; telaod a rengul a betok a uldesuel.
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terrakl, v.r.s.destroyed; broken up; scattered; fraction (in math).
terrakl a berriid; mla meterakl; toreklii a blai; tereklel.
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ulekbeches, v.r.s.renovated; repaired.
ulekbeches a mle mechut e meruul el mo beches; blimam a mla mukbeches; mla mekbechesur, mla mo diak el mechut; ukbechesul.
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ulkiis, v.r.s.awakened.
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ulterekokl, v.r.s.entrusted to someone; given for safekeeping; (specific time) set; sincere, real; genuine; really; surely; for sure; definitely.
ulterekokl a mla moterekokl; ultebechel el kmal ngii; mloterekokl el mengkar a chutem; oterekeklii a omerolel, oterekokl a okelel a babii er ngii; ulterekeklel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chemachel, v.a.s.(betel nut) is to be chewed; (tobacco) is to be smoked.
chemachel a redil el ourrot er a blil el motobed er a ocheraolbai me a klomengelungel, oungerachel a udoud me a rokui el tekoi.
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chetechetioll, v.a.s.is to be wounded.
chetechetioll a kirel el mechetechat; mengetechat er ngii, mekull, diak chetechetioll a chad me a charem.
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kekeringall, v.a.s.is to be made smaller or reduced in size.
kekeringall a kirel el mo kekerei; mengkekerei; kokeringii a blengur, kmekerei a mo delikik el kall, diak le klou, diak luleiis; kekeringil.
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okebiil, v.a.s.is to be restrained/held back.
okebiil a kirel el mokebai; meterob; buik a okebiil er a oterul a mekngit el kar; okebir.
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ongbesall, v.a.s.is to be tempted, teased or seduced.
ongbesall a kirel el mongibes; rebis a ongbesall er a klebokel el ngloik, mo sorir; nguibes er a ungil el dil, ongbesel.
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tetkall, v.a.s.is to be pointed at or appointed.
tetkall a kirel el metutk; tutkii a bobai; tmutk a mengur; tetkel.
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udelmall, v.a.s.(weapon) is to be aimed; is to be focused on or at.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiong prone to moving from one boyfriend or girlfriend to another.
lottapeworm.lottapeworm.
besbastrash; rubbish; litter; debris.mekesbesiil
cheballwhite-leafed taro (yautia); gray/white hair.cheballgray-haired; white-haired.
chetaubrief rain squall.chetau (skin) dark.
lebfuzz (on leaf) of plant (e.g.; sugar cane; grass); plant in coffee family; shyness.meleblebitchy; prickly; covered with fuzz of plant.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedsmall sea crab.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
tngeklel a rengulpeace offering for someone.
betachel a rengulis to be pleased/satisfied/appeased; content.
melemedem er a rengulcool down one's anger.
urrengulelurungulel
mereng er a rengulplease; go along with (so as not to hurt feelings).
rengul a diokangstarch.
mechedeng a rengulget surprised, puzzled or perplexed (by someone's behavior, etc.).

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