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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blang, v.r.s.(spear) thrown so that it skips along ground or surface of water.
blang a biskang el oba el omang er ngii.
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kled, v.r.s.directed; organized.
kled a beruadel, madelkled a medal a ungil a rengul; madelkled a klebokel el meloik.
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kloi, v.r.s.(boat) placed on supports.
kloi a mla mekoi; kloi a bos; ng mla ngmasech er a meched; ngar er a koi, kmongii, kmoi, kongel.
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rrenged, v.r.s.(long object) tied together; joined.
rrenged a rrengodel; llechet, mla merenged; ebakl a rrenged.
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selkolk, v.r.s.(head, hair) mussed up or unkempt.
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telubech, v.r.s.masturbated; circumcised.
telubech a mla metubech; nglubech.
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ulekchubs, v.r.s.(having been) healed.
ulekchubs a mla mukar el mo mechubs; mla mo diak a telemall er ngii; cheltechat a ulekchubs.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

dechedechall, v.a.s.(person) is to be speared or clubbed.
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iuochel, v.a.s.is to be opened or cut open.
iuochel a kirel el meiuch; meliuch a mengur, imuich a mekebud.
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kdoel, v.a.s.is to be put or placed down.
kdoel a kirel el meked; kmedii a til, kmed a kall, menged er a tebel, kedeel a kall, lochang er a ulaol.
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ochebecheball, v.a.s.is to be put upside down; is to be turned face down.
ochebecheball a kirel el mochebecheb; omechebecheb er a dengarech; mechebecheb a olekang; ochebechebel a olekang.
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oteruul, v.a.s.is to be sold or given away; for sale.
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temikel, v.a.s.is to be shaved or scraped.
temikel a kirel el mengai; kirel el metamk; tomkii; tuamk a chesemel.
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tiuall, v.a.s.is to be rubbed or smoothed over or petted.
tiuall a kirel el metaiu; melaiu er ngii; toiuii a chimal; tmaiu a bedengel; tiuel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
kldolsfatness; thickness.kedols(round object) fat, thick or wide. Commonly used to describe betelnuts and coconuts.
britelshakiness; jitters.britel(person) shaky/jittery.
chaziflavor, taste.chaziflavor, taste.
tebekbukrayfish.tebekbukrayfish.
berechsmell of raw fish.bekeberechsmell of the sea or raw fish.
mudechvomit.bekemudechsmell of vomit.
chadliver.chedengaolsick with jaundice.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
olsebek er a rengulworry (unintentionally); startle.
oltak er a renguldeceive oneself about being someone's sweetheart.
orreked er a rengulrestrain or control (oneself) (esp., from showing anger).
mechuached a rengulevil; mean; stubborn.
olseked er a rengulstick to something (without giving up); be firm.
derengulalso, used a as friendly expression of envy.

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