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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blult, v.r.s.turned over/inside out; translated.
blult a ulechero, mla obult, bellutel a bilel; mult, meltii a babier, beltel a bail.
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chelubel, v.r.s.spilled; poured out; used up; out of stock; (widower and children) left alone (without wife or mother).
chelubel a mla mechubel; uleitel, chubelii, chuubel, chebelel, mengubel, chebelel a uasech.
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delebusech, v.r.s.(conch shell or horn) blown.
delebusech a mla medebusech; debusech; melebusech el mesubed er a eolt, dubsechii, debsechel a eolt.
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rrael, v.r.s.(particular distance) walked/traveled/covered.
rrael a mla remolii; beches el rael a rrael, ki mla merael er ngii.
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rrus, v.r.s.pierced; stabbed; injected; inoculated.
rrus a mla merus; rrus a ulkel er a oles; rusur, remus, rsul a ulk.
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selang, v.r.s.cut diagonally; held at angle.
selang a delebes el cherresokl; klengabel, delobech el diak le melemalt; bambuu a selang me ng kedorem; sengal.
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telooch, v.r.s.(baby, animal) fed with pre-chewed food.
telooch a rringet el kall; ngalek a menga telooch; tmochii, tmooch; tochel a ngalek.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chebuul, v.a.s.is to be given gift (sometimes, out of pity); is to be bribed.
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chisisall, v.a.s.are to be piled up one on top of the other.
chisisall a meleket; kirel el mechisois; choisisii, choisois a babier, mengisois er a blil, chisisel a blai.
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oderuchel, v.a.s.is to be told/asked/encouraged to do something; is to be sent on an errand.
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otongall, v.a.s.is to be included.
otongall a kirel el motoi; oltoi, oldak, blengur a otongall a ongraol me a kliou me a rodech me a iasai er ngii; otongel.
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sbechall, v.a.s.is to be broken open.
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ungkill, v.a.s.is to be named.
ungkill a kirel el mungakl; mngeklii, loia a ngklel; omngakl er ngii; tolechoi a ungkill.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

tutaumorning; this morning.tutauPalau morning bird.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
chemanglarge sea or mangrove crab; Samoan crab.bekechemangsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs).
teberoishin; (large, triangle-shaped) coconut candy.teberoibow-legged.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadliver.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

omech er a rengultake the edge of one's hunger.
sengok a rengulcurious.
melib er a renguldecide; make up one's mind.
melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
klikiid a renguluninvolved.
beot a renguleasygoing; nonchalant; unmotivated; lazy.
belalk a rengulfeel shame/fright.

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