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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelado, v.r.s.roofed.
chelado a mla mechado; cheldool, chodeuii, chemado a blai.
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delengmes, v.r.s.respected; honored.
delengmes a mla medengmes; mla ngmai a chetengakl; mla morenges e modanges, dengmesioll a delengmes
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klaud, v.r.s.dammed; delayed.
klaud a telengetongel; mla mekaud; telenget, ralm a klaud, skoki a klaud er a eolt, kudel.
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klemudel, v.r.s.(hair) cut; (shrubs, etc.) trimmed; (string, etc.) cut.
klimd a klmudel; delebes a cheiul mla mekimd, kimdii, kuimd a cheiul, kemdel.
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kloir, v.r.s.(hair, etc.) evened out by cutting; (person) emulated.
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uldidm, v.r.s.spied on; watched for carefully.
uldidm a mla mudidm; mla moues; rrechorech el udoud a uldidm; mdedmii; mdidm; udedmel.
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ulechem, v.r.s.(fish or tapioca) tied and wrapped.
ulechem a mla mochem; mla mechem a ngikel; odoim a ulechem el ngikel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chemechemuul, v.a.s.is to be broken into pieces.
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ledokel, v.a.s.is to be stretched out or placed lengthwise.
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otemengall, v.a.s.is to be poked/stuck out.
otemengall a kirel el motom; olecholt, otom a mederir er a urreor, otom a mederir er a mechesang, otemeel.
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sball, v.a.s.(ground) is to be broken, plowed or dug.
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sbochel, v.a.s.(branches, etc.) are to be broken off.
sbochel a kirel el mesibech; mengai el mei er eou; rechelel a iedel a sbochel, sibechii, suibech a rachel, sbechel
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uksoangel, v.a.s.is to be made used to or trained.
uksoangel a kirel el muksau; omeksau er ngii; meruul er ngii el mo smau, mo soal; omeksau, meksongii ngalek; ngalek a uksoangel er a urreor; uksongel.
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usekerall, v.a.s.is to be girded with loincloth; is to be tied around.
usekerall a kirel el musaker; msekerii; loia usekerel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
kerdikyaws; framboesia.kerdiksuffering from yaws.
rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.rubakelder; old man; chief; foreign man; boyfriend; husband.
chedeadjellyfish; nettle.chedead not knowing where to go.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient; not enough; few.
mbesaoldrool; spittle.mbesaoldrool; spittle.
cheremrumtype of sea cucumber; trepang.bekecheremrumsmell of sea cucumber.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

melemed a rengulcool down one's anger.
selorech a rengulcondescending.
mesisiich a rengulstrong-willed; motivated; determined; hard-working.
mekurt a rengul(someone's) feelings hurt.
menglou er a rengultry to make (someone, oneself) patient; assure; take edge of one's hunger.
medul a renguldisgusted with.
obais a rengulget fed up with; become unable to cope with.

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