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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blor, v.r.s.(hands, chest) laid or put on or against something.
blor a mla obor; bereked, ngalek a omor er a ulul er a ulaol.
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chelsuart, v.r.s.covered with asphalt.
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delilech, v.r.s.dipped (and removed from water).
delilech a mla medilech; ngar er a ralm; dellochel, selokel a delilech , dilechii, dmilech, delechel a selokel.
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llemolem, v.r.s.(long object) laid down lengthwise; (work, schooling, etc.) completed; accomplished; (path, stream, etc.) followed; parallel.
llemolem a telamet; mla melemolem; lemelemel, lilemelemii a skuul a mlo er a ullebongel; llemolem a skulel, bambuu a llemolem er a rael.
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llud, v.r.s.having had sexual intercourse.
llud a mla ludur; melud er ngii.
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seledem, v.r.s.propositioned; proposed.
seledem a mla mesedem; te seledem er a omenged; sodemii er a klsau; kesedem; sedemel.
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telark, v.r.s.scratched (up).
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bliil, v.a.s.is to be regulated or restricted.
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chelball, v.a.s.(outer surface of betel nut fiber) is to be stripped off; (wood) is to be whittled.
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chesuechesall, v.a.s.is to be splinted.
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ochidall, v.a.s.is to be messed up.
ochidall a kirel el mochoid, mochetekl, klalo er a skoki a ochidall el osiik a mekull er a llach el klalo.
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oibekall, v.a.s.is to be broken or smashed through.
oibekall a kirel el moiubek; tmoech er a bitang; kboub a oibekall, oibekii, oiubek, oibekel.
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okeradel, v.a.s.is to be lighted.
okeradel a kirel el mokard; mekerdii a olbidel; mekard, okerdel.
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utichioll, v.a.s.is to be changed, replaced or succeeded.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
oreomelforest; woods.chereomeloreomel
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraom (fish) slightly spoiled.
hambunghalf.hambunghalf.
chullrain; rainy season.chullrainy.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient quantity.
baikingdisease; germs.baiking(person) unsanitary/unhygienic (in one's habits).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
kekere a renguluncomfortable; impatient.
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
mekikngit a rengulfeel rather sad or sorry about; rather mean or inconsiderate.
kie a rengul calm down; stop worrying.
meleolt a rengul(person) carefree or nonchalant; (person) not easily disturbed or content to let things happen as they may.
mesisiich a rengulstrong-willed; motivated; determined; hard-working.
mesaul a rengulnot feel like.

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