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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheleokl, v.r.s.having something stuck in throat; (machine) broken.
cheleokl a mla mecheokl; merekeklii a tungd, ngar er ngii a tungd er a omerkolel; cheleokl a telemall el mesil; bilas a cheleokl.
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chelol, v.r.s.carried on the shoulder; carried away; picked up; stolen.
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deluis, v.r.s.removed; extracted.
deluis a mla meduis; mla motobed; duiesii, dmuis a semum, meluis a delsangel.
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rrech, v.r.s.moved; readied; set in order.
rrech a kldmokl; mla mudasu; mla merech a rolel a blengur; mlil a omerael a rrech; rechul.
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selab, v.r.s.snapped or pecked at.
selab a klebungl er ngii; mesab er a kall; sobngii, suab, bilis a selab er a kelel, sebngel; seleches.
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ulechur, v.r.s.counted; included.
ulechur a ulecherungel; mla mochur; nglai a ildisel.
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ulekchubs, v.r.s.(having been) healed.
ulekchubs a mla mukar el mo mechubs; mla mo diak a telemall er ngii; cheltechat a ulekchubs.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chelekelekall, v.a.s.is to be rubbed (between hands).
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chelmongel, v.a.s.is to be accompanied/escorted.
chelmongel a kirel el mechelim, mengelim er a medakd, cholmengii a mekngit a rengul; chelmengel.
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ngunguchall, v.a.s.is to be prayed to.
ngunguchall a kirel el mengunguuch; ngunguchii me le cheridii er a rrom; ngunguchall el mo soal el mo er a skuul; ngunguchel.
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ongidall, v.a.s.(food) is to be given or exchanged ceremonially.
ongidall a kirel el mongoid; ongoid, diak el ongidall a chutem er a telungalek.
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oridall, v.a.s.(someone's) departure is to be awaited.
oridall a kirel el moriid; mo dibus; olterau a ice a oridall er a beluu; odkikall.
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otilall, v.a.s.is to be laid down.
otilall a kirel el motuil; otuil a tekoi er a merreder, otilel.
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sekedall, v.a.s.is to be squeezed in or crowded out.
sekedall a kirel mo meseked; sokedii, Babeldaob a sekedall er a rechad er a Belau; smeked.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

rirfallen leaves of kebui.merir(leaves) yellow.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutauPalau morning bird.
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadliver.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
chedeadjellyfish; nettle.chedead not knowing where to go.
kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

bekesbesib a rengulprone to sweating; easily angered; touchy.
dechal a rengul perseverance; ambition; strong will.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
chebosech a rengulboring; dull; poor at speaking.
mechitechut a rengulweak willed; unmotivated; easily discouraged.
beltik a rengulbetik a rengul
omerteret a rengulfed up or exasperated with.

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