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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelais, v.r.s.(leaves) plucked or stripped off plant.
chelais a nglai; mla mechais; choisii, mengais a kebui, chemais a kebui, chisel a kebui.
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chelimetemet, v.r.s.(hand) closed to make fist; crushed into ball.
chelimetemet a mla mechimetemet diak le blerek, choimetemetii a chimal; choimetemet a babier, chimetemetel.
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klabs, v.r.s.hung with rope; etc.; defeated (in hanahuda = card game).
klabs a mla mekabs; tuu a klebikl, kebsel.
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lling, v.r.s.punched with a hole.
lling a mla meling; chemars, ngar er ngii a blsibes; lingir, lming, lling el olekang.
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uldars, v.r.s.lifted up; (arm, leg) stretched or extended.
uldars a mla modars; oba chimal el mo er a bab; odersii a chimal, odars a udoud, odersel.
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uldeu, v.r.s.made happy; pleased.
uldeu a mla mo ungil a rengul; mla modeu a rengul, deulreng.
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uldum, v.r.s.made to appear.
uldum a mla modum; ulecholt, ngalek a uldum a bdelul er a daob; mla tmoech; odmii, odum, sils a uldum; odmil.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chetongel, v.a.s.is to be praised.
chetongel a kirel a chetengakl; kirel a odanges, chetengel.
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ksomel, v.a.s.is to be chopped with clam-shell ax.
ksomel a kirel el mekisem; mecheduib, mengisem er ngii; ksemel.
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ochuill, v.a.s.(someone's glance or attention) is to be attracted; is to be called out to.
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ruikl, v.a.s.is to be divided up or distributed.
ruikl a biongel; kirel el merous; rusel a kall; ruikl er a beluu.
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soechel, v.a.s.is to be broken off.
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ukdengesall, v.a.s.is to be made full or satisfied.
ukdengesall a kirel el mukdinges; mekelii el mo medinges; mo diak el sengerenger; mekdengesii, omekdinges er ngii; ulekdengesel.
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utetkall, v.a.s.(plant) is to be supported by stick put into ground; (site of house, etc.) is to be marked with sticks and strings.
utetkall a kirel el mututk; locha ututk; mtetkii a rael, mtutk, utetkel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
daktfear; awe.bedektallfearful; shy.
sengerengerhunger; starvation.bekesengerengerget hungry easily; always getting hungry.
temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuubald-headed.
burachedskin disease in which white spots spread over body.burachedhaving skin covered with white spots.
kobesossea horse.kobesos (head) long, narrow or pointed.
maiscorn.maiscorn.
bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
smuuch a rengul(person) calm/placid.
merechorech a rengulselfish; greedy; stingy.
bekongesengasech a renguleasily angered; excitable.
klou er a renguldetermined.
cheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
medengelii a rengulregain consciousness (after a faint or stroke); (person) self-confident or self-assured; (person) knowing his abilities or capacities.
bekesbesib a rengulprone to sweating; easily angered; touchy.

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