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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blakes, v.r.s.(leg) moved to walk.
blakes a mla obakes; mekesii, blakes a cheroid, blekeklel
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kldibel, v.r.s.(persons) called together or assembled (typically for the purpose of a meeting or sermon).
kldibel a klideb; cheldull; chelludel.
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rrusech, v.r.s.(food, betel nut, medicine) pounded; punched.
rrusech a mla merusech; remusech a kukau el mo belsiich; rusechii, rsechel; cherrad.
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selcheseb, v.r.s.ladled out.
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terrakl, v.r.s.destroyed; broken up; scattered; fraction (in math).
terrakl a berriid; mla meterakl; toreklii a blai; tereklel.
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ulterebek, v.r.s.raped.
ulterebek a mla moterebek; mla oterebekii, oterbekel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chetiotel, v.a.s.(point of knife, spear, etc.) is to be broken or bent.
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kikidall, v.a.s.is to be absolved, purified or emptied.
kikidall a kirel el mekikiid; mo klikiid, mo beches, kikidii a beluu, kmikiid a blai, kikidel.
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kloaol, v.a.s.is to be grabbed at and squeezed or kneaded; (taro patch) is to be prepared.
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ltukel, v.a.s.(someone) is to be remembered (because he will be a titled person).
ltukel a kirel a omelatk; ungil a omerellel el chad a ltukel; klou a omelatk el kirel; kedung el chad a ltukel, ltkel.
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otechall, v.a.s.is to be pierced or drilled through.
otechall a kirel el motoech, otechii a ungil el uldasu, otoech a mederir, otechel.
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oteruul, v.a.s.is to be sold or given away; for sale.
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rediil, v.a.s.(wound) is to be irritated.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
ongitact of asking for something.bekongitalways asking for things.
chemadechcoconut sap.chemadechcoconut sap.
teberoishin; (large, triangle-shaped) coconut candy.teberoibow-legged.
mongkcomplaint; criticism.bekemongkalways complaining.
riamelfootball fruit (Pangi; Payan).bekeriamelsmell like football fruit; sweaty; have a strong body odor (especially, as result of diet or poor hygiene).
iudoraiburent-a-car; U-drive car.iudoraibu (woman) loose or fast.
idokeldirtiness; filthiness.idokel dirty; filthy.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mesubed a rengulaccept; be resigned to; learn a lesson; learn from experience.
melechang a llechul a rengulteach (someone) a lesson.
komeklii a rengul(person) controlling themselves; (person) holding their tongue.
mechitechut a rengulweak willed; unmotivated; easily discouraged.
ilkelkel a rengulhis stupidity.
obais a rengulget fed up with; become unable to cope with.
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.

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