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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berriid, v.r.s.scattered; spread; sown; dismantled.
berriid a diak le chelludel; mriid, rechad a berrid.
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bliongel, v.r.s.divided; distributed; separated; separate.
bliongel a blii; mla obii, bliongel er a kall, blingelel a udoud, rusel, bingel.
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blir, v.r.s.(arm) swung; (rope) twirled.
blir a mla obir; mrengii a bir, mir a chimal, brengel.
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chelisois, v.r.s.piled up one on top of the other.
chelisois a chachisois, mla mechisois; klalo el ultak er a bebil er a klalo; choisisii, choisois a babier, chisisel.
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terrakl, v.r.s.destroyed; broken up; scattered; fraction (in math).
terrakl a berriid; mla meterakl; toreklii a blai; tereklel.
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ulngamk, v.r.s.set right or straight.
ulngamk a mla mungamk; mla locha ungamk er ngii; ulngamk a omekedecheraol, ungemkel a rael.
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ultilech, v.r.s.has had something put on top of it.
ultilech a ulsarech, mla motilech, ultilech er a mlai; mlai a ngar er a bebul; otelechii.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bitekill, v.a.s.is to be turned around or inside out or upside down.
bitekill a kirel el obitokl; miteklii a mlai; biteklel, chelebuul a bebitekill, a lta e ng kuk obitokl el ekong.
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osongel, v.a.s.is to be seen or looked at.
osongel a kirel el moes; mes a ngloik, omes a ruk, smecher a mo er a osongel; osengel.
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otutall, v.a.s.(spear, gun, etc.) is to be aimed at target; (law) is to be enforced; (fire) is to be lighted; (job) is to be started; is to be hooked.
otutall a kirel el motaut; otaut a llechul a rael, otutii a ngau, llechul a rael a otutall; otutel.
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redemall, v.a.s.is to have handle put on; is to be installed or attached.
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toechel, v.a.s.(compost) is to be made.
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ukdektall, v.a.s.is to be frightened or scared.
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ukdengesall, v.a.s.is to be made full or satisfied.
ukdengesall a kirel el mukdinges; mekelii el mo medinges; mo diak el sengerenger; mekdengesii, omekdinges er ngii; ulekdengesel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
cherollbirth; birthday.ulemcheroll(woman) having already borne children.
siktcluster/bunch of fruit.mesiktbe in a cluster (used only in mesikt el btuch).
maiscorn.maisblond.
H.O.(abbrev.) Babeldaob (used pejoratively).H.O.unexperienced in Western ways; ignorant of modern conveniences.
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.
secheleifriend; companion; boyfriend; girlfriend; lover; term of address from a woman to a group of people.bekesecheleifriendly; having many friends.
butgenitals; anus; vagina; bottom (surface).bekebut(woman) having large buttocks or vagina; (man) having large buttocks.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
klikiid a renguluninvolved.
moalech a renguldisappointed; dismayed.
oltamet er a rengulpull at someone's heartstrings; mean a lot to someone.
betachel a rengulis to be pleased/satisfied/appeased; content.
chelimimii a rengulsullen; obstinate; uncooperative.
bedis a rengulinconsiderate.
cheldeng a rengulconfused; surprised; stubborn; dull-witted; slow (in understanding).

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