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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelebechobel, v.r.s.embarrassed.
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delekull, v.r.s.buried.
delekull a mla medakl er a chutem, doklii, dmakl, deklel a beldokel.
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klsik, v.r.s.has a ridge or hollow passage carved in it.
klsik a chelduib; mla mecheduib, itabori a klsik.
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teliu, v.r.s.carried with arm bent out and up; (card) drawn or picked.
teliu a telkool; mla metiu; tmiu a bilel, tiungar a ngelekel; meliu a ditel; tiungal a ngalek.
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ulchelochel, v.r.s.has had object come at one.
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ulsaso, v.r.s.obtained through barter or trade.
ulsaso a mla musaso; mla koreker; msesouii a delengcheklel, msaso a udoud; ulsaso a kelel; usesouel.
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ultour, v.r.s.carried on the back; held behind the back.
ultour a ngar a ulk; mla motour; mla oturii a ngelekel; cheleoch el ngalek a ultour, oltour er a til; oturel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chebelall, v.a.s.is to be poured out.
chebelall a kirel el mochubel; moitel, ochebelall, olechubel a ralm, ochebelel.
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chederedall, v.a.s.are to be put together or into order; are to be arranged.
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disall, v.a.s.is to be increased or added to.
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orretall, v.a.s.is to be made to run.
orretall a kirel el morurt; skuul er a kldachelbai a orretall, orretii el mo ungil, orurt a osisechakl er a usaso, orretel.
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rerongel, v.a.s.(food) is to be heated so as not to spoil; (hands, etc.) are to be warmed over or next to fire.
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smochel, v.a.s.(blanket, etc.) is to be spread out; (message) is to be sent; (body) is to be messaged; is to be restored.
smochel a suumech; mesumech, uldechuul a smochel a bedengel; sumechii a bdelul; smechel a uldechuul.
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songesongel, v.a.s.(coconut tree) is to be tapped for sap.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
cheludechwooden float for fish net; light weight wood used to make corks.cheludech(wood) dried out (and light in weight).
singchwaist; pelvis; lower back.bekesingch
bidokelhives.bidokel broken out in hives.
kamangsickle.kamangtwisted, crippled.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiong prone to moving from one boyfriend or girlfriend to another.
chemanglarge sea or mangrove crab; Samoan crab.bekechemangsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
seselk a rengulbored; impatient.
mengurt a rengulhurt (feelings); make (someone) despair.
mekurt a rengul(someone's) feelings hurt.
kedeb a rengulshort tempered; impatient.
mechas a rengulbe surprised at.
ochemchuml a rengulseething inside with anger or hate.
blak a rengulhard-working; diligent; eager; attentive; interested in; intent upon; decided on; in favor of.

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