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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelduib, v.r.s.carved; whittled; seduced by flattery.
chelduib a mla obekord; mla mecheduib; chodibii, choduib, mengeduib a ordomel; chedibel.
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chelilt, v.r.s.oiled; greased; anointed; cared for.
chelilt a mla mechilt; chelilt er a cheluch; chiltii, chemilt, ngalek a chelilt er a kar.
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selekesako, v.r.s.crawled; crept over.
selekesako a mla mesekesako; mla melekesako er ngii; sokesekeuii a blai; sekesekoel a blai.
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teleketak, v.r.s.masturbated; circumcised.
teleketak a mla meteketak; teketak.
uldak, v.r.s.added together; unified; joined.
uldak a diak le kakerous; udoud a dmak; uldak er a chimo el chidib, odak, odekial.
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uleksebek, v.r.s.made to fly.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

betachel a rengul, v.a.s.is to be pleased/satisfied/appeased; content.
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chesenguul, v.a.s.is to be occupied or busy.
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chesimall, v.a.s.is to be turned, wound or screwed.
chesimall a kirel el mechesoim; chosimii a seraub, chosoim, mengesoim er a ralm, chesimel.
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chetuul, v.a.s.(fish) smoked; having the potential of giving off too much smoke.
chetuul a kirel el mechat; techa mengat a ngikel? chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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ongemekall, v.a.s.is to be pushed out with effort.
ongemekall a kirel mongemek, ongemek er a dechil; ngemekel a cheroll; ongemekii.
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sebechekill, v.a.s.is to be defended or helped.
sebechekill a kirel el mesebechakl, sobecheklii, odesebii, ngoseuir, buik a sebechekill, sebecheklel.
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tebetball, v.a.s.(long object) is to be divided or split into small pieces, strips, etc.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

baikingdisease; germs.baiking(person) unsanitary/unhygienic (in one's habits).
ongitact of asking for something.bekongitalways asking for things.
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otordblunt-headed parrot fish.
chuisworm; maggot.bederechuis(starchy food) spoiled (by water); decomposing or moldy.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.
lusechluck.melusechalways lucky.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

smecher a rengulhomesick.
mesmesim a rengulunstable; changing one's mind easily.
meleolt a rengul(person) carefree or nonchalant; (person) not easily disturbed or content to let things happen as they may.
cheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
ungil a rengulhappy; glad; kind.
mekurt a rengul(someone's) feelings hurt.
mechedeng a rengulget surprised, puzzled or perplexed (by someone's behavior, etc.).

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