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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bles, v.r.s.in a state of having forgotten something/having put something out of one's mind.
bles a mla obes; urriid er a omelatk, bles er a urreor, klou el bes.
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blir, v.r.s.(arm) swung; (rope) twirled.
blir a mla obir; mrengii a bir, mir a chimal, brengel.
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kliis, v.r.s.(ground) dug/scratched in (by chicken); opened or unlocked; (clock, watch) wound.
kliis a mla mekiis; kliokl; debull a kliis, kiesii el mo delluchel, kmiis, mengiis, kisel a debull.
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ngeliokl, v.r.s.(ongraol) cooked or boiled in water.
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uliuul, v.r.s.transferred; transported.
uliuul a mla imuul; mla moiuul; rechad el mlara telemall el mlai a uliuul er a ungil mlai; oiuelii, oliuul a rechad; oiuelel.
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urrekerek, v.r.s.(juice, gravy) reboiled and thickened.
urrekerek a mla morekerek; mla mo medirt; urrekerek el uasech, merkerekii a miich, orekerekel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

beremall, v.a.s.(fish) is to be allowed to spoil slightly before wrapping and barbequeing.
beremall a kirel el mukberaom, mo beraom; beremel el ngikel.
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cherdechedall, v.a.s.is to be fried.
cherdechedall a kirel el mecherdoched; chordechedii, chordoched a ngikel, cherdechedel.
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cherirall, v.a.s.is to be caught up with; (hair, etc.) is to be cut to same length.
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chesmall, v.a.s.is to be tapped or rapped on; is to be rung.
chesmall a kirel el mechosm; chesmoll, chosmii, chuosm a kambalang, mengosm, chesmel.
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ochotall, v.a.s.is to be shown or revealed.
ochotall a kirel el mocholt; oterul a mekngit el kar a ochotall er a bulis; ochotii.
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sechesall, v.a.s.is to be pecked at.
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tochall, v.a.s.is to be pre-chewed.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
bangchbite.sekebangch(animal, person) prone to biting.
tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.
lebfuzz (on leaf) of plant (e.g.; sugar cane; grass); plant in coffee family; shyness.meleblebitchy; prickly; covered with fuzz of plant.
baikingdisease; germs.baikingdisease; germs.
ngulasthma.ngulasthmatic; suffering from a bout of asthma.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.
besbastrash; rubbish; litter; debris.besbesiileasily litter.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
obais a rengulget fed up with; become unable to cope with.
melaok a renguladulterous; acquisitive.
ngodech er a rengulfind something strange, different or suspicious.
omud a rengulfed up with; exasperated; can't stand.
meched a rengulthirsty; impatient; prone to overreact; (deprived and) having strong desire for.
ouralmesils a rengulweak-willed.
durengulintention.

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