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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bludech, v.r.s.vomited on.
bludech a mla obudech; smecher a mla omudech; mdechii a ulaol, mudech, mdechel.
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nglimet, v.r.s.bailed.
nglimet a mla mengimet; mlai a nglimet; diak a ngmatel er ngii.
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rrakl, v.r.s.picked up out of pot.
rrakl a nglakr; nglai er a olekang; mla mengakr; ngokrii, ngkrel a ngeliokl el kukau.
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ulecheoch, v.r.s.asked for persistently.
ulecheoch a mla mocheoch; mla mesisiich el ongtir; mla mechechii a klok er ngak; ochechel a klok.
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uluit, v.r.s.boiled several times.
uluit a mla obuit; brak el meketeket el ngar a ngeliokl a uluit; omuit a brak.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bdechall, v.a.s.are to be bound into sheaves/pacified.
bdechall a kirel el obudech, omudech, rullii a budech er a beluu, rullii a kltalreng er a rechad; bdechel.
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chimkemkall, v.a.s.is to be covered over with (blanket, clothes, leave, etc.); (forest) choked with vegetation (and difficult to pass through).
chimkemkall a kirel el mechimkomk; dokedekii, medekedek, imkemkii a smecher er a bar, mengimkomk, chimkemkel.
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denguoll, v.a.s.is to be ridiculed (usually for incest).
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ksmedall, v.a.s.(fish) is to be choked.
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ririuul, v.a.s.is to be shaken.
ririuul a kirel el meririau; berikd el iedel a ririuul; ririur me ng ruebet a rdechel.
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teketokel, v.a.s.is to be constructed, assembled or put together.
teketokel a kirel el meteketek meleketek er ngii; teketokel a kall; toketekii a blai; teketekel.
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ukiill, v.a.s.is to be stopped or restrained.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

sengerengerhunger; starvation.bekesengerengerget hungry easily; always getting hungry.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuubald-headed.
kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .kurstwitching.
silssun; day.bekesils(boys) smell sweaty or gamey (after perspiring in sun).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

luut er a rengulanything causing one to lose one's resolve.
smuuch a rengul(person) calm/placid.
melekoi a renguldetermined; well-motivated; make rasping or humming sound in the lungs; make humming moise while sleeping; (cat) purr.
omak er a rengul(person) takes the edge off (his/her) hunger.
belalk a rengulfeel shame/fright.
olengasech er a rengulmake or get (someone) angry.
bliochel a rengulsincere; open-minded.

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