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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chellobel, v.r.s.protected; sheltered.
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chelsekl, v.r.s.cooked with spices.
chelsekl a mla mechesekl; kall el delul er a bebul a deel; choseklii, chosekl a diokang, mengesekl, cheseklel.
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delechodech, v.r.s.(person) speared or clubbed.
delechodech a mla medechodech; chellebed er a olechodech, chelebed er a mekemad.
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klumech, v.r.s.(blanket; etc.) spread out; (body) massaged; restored; message sent.
klumech a mesumech a tekoi el mo er a cheroid; a ika klmechel el eko er kau.
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nglemiakl, v.r.s.climbed on.
nglemiakl a mla mengemiakl; mla melemiakl er ngii; buuch a ngimeklel.
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rrar, v.r.s.(food) heated so as not to spoil; (hands, etc.) warmed over or next to fire.
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ulskosk, v.r.s.pushed vigorously.
ulskosk a mla moskosk; mla modubech; uldubech el mong; oskeskii, olskosk er ngii, oskeskel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bedikel, v.a.s.is to be cut/slit/operated on.
bedikel a kirel el obodk; smecher a bedikel, medkii a medal, bodk, bedkel
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bredechall, v.a.s.is to be buttoned or inlaid.
bredechall a kirel el obrodech, merdechii, mrodech, kirel el murodech a bail.
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chebelall, v.a.s.is to be poured out.
chebelall a kirel el mochubel; moitel, ochebelall, olechubel a ralm, ochebelel.
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cherirall, v.a.s.is to be caught up with; (hair, etc.) is to be cut to same length.
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cholodall, v.a.s.is to be comforted or consoled.
cholodall a kirel el mechelaod, mengelaod.
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isall, v.a.s.is to be rowed, paddled or stirred.
isall a kirel el meius; isar a mlai, imus a ilumel, isal.
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kerioll, v.a.s.(person) is to be reminded of debt; (loan, etc.) is to be recalled.
kerioll a kirel el mekeriil; korilii, mengeriil a medal a udoud; koriil a udoud, blals a kerioll, kerilel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

tutkwart on sole of foot; disease of kebui leaves.tutk (kebui leaves) diseased.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedsmall sea crab.
sengerengerhunger; starvation.bekesengerengerget hungry easily; always getting hungry.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
kelebusjail, prison.kelebusjailed; in jail; (child, etc.) undergoing punishment.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

tuobed a rengulone's real feelings come out.
oltamet er a rengulpull at someone's heartstrings; mean a lot to someone.
chetellaok a rengulchetellaok
omatek er a rengul restrain ones desire to do something; keep ones desire(s) to oneself.
ongemengemek a rengulongemengemek
seselkang a rengulbecoming bored or impatient.
mesubed a rengulaccept; be resigned to; learn a lesson; learn from experience.

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