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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cherroid, v.r.s.removed to a distance; moved away.
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kellulau, v.r.s.whispered to.
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klemudel, v.r.s.(hair) cut; (shrubs, etc.) trimmed; (string, etc.) cut.
klimd a klmudel; delebes a cheiul mla mekimd, kimdii, kuimd a cheiul, kemdel.
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kloir, v.r.s.(hair, etc.) evened out by cutting; (person) emulated.
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klsik, v.r.s.has a ridge or hollow passage carved in it.
klsik a chelduib; mla mecheduib, itabori a klsik.
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telboech, v.r.s.touched or cooked lightly.
telboech a mla metboech; tibechii a sechelil; melboech er ngii.
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telenget, v.r.s.made sacrifice to; hindered; obstructed.
telenget a chelsimer; mla metenget; tongetengii a rael; tonget a metetoech; melenget, tengetengel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chesbedengall, v.a.s.(face) is to be slapped.
chesbedengall a kirel el mechesbad; mechelebed, chosbedengii, chosbad, diak le chesbedengall a chad.
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chesekill, v.a.s.is to be cooked with spices.
chesekill a kirel el mechesekl; choseklii, chosekl a malk, mengesekl, cheseklel.
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dekoall, v.a.s.is to be blown out, inflated, smoked or puffed.
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kdoel, v.a.s.is to be put or placed down.
kdoel a kirel el meked; kmedii a til, kmed a kall, menged er a tebel, kedeel a kall, lochang er a ulaol.
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kiokl, v.a.s.is to be dug; is to be opened or unlocked; (clock, watch) is to be wound.
kiokl a kirel el mekiis; kiesii el mo delluchel, kmiis a chutem, mengiis er ngii, mesib.
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riueruall, v.a.s.is to be fanned.
riueruall a kirel el meruoru, msa eolt; riueruii a smecher; riueruel.
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udiuul, v.a.s.is to be pulled in.
udiuul a kirel el mudai; mengurs er ngii el oba udai; omdai er ngii; telemall el ert a udiuul.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
omecherollwomb; uterus; place where animals breed; birth canal.bekecheroll(woman) fertile/having many children.
mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
chadliver.chedengaolhave a large liver.
klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.klukuk be tomorrow; be the next or following day.
chaseborash.chasebohaving rash or prickly heat.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
ongitact of asking for something.bekongitalways asking for things.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
ulsarech a rengul(emotions etc.) held in.
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
kngtil a rengul(someone's) being mean or feeling sad or frustrated.
mechese a rengulbecoming surprised.
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
mekikiid a rengulunsympathetic; uncaring; uninvolved; emotionless.
kie a rengul calm down; stop worrying.

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