The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.
Palauan Resulting State Verbs
In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:
- Someone hides something which results in it being hidden.
- In Palauaun, omart is the verb 'to hide,' and blart is the resulting state verb corresponding to the English adjective hidden.
- Someone heats something which results in it being hot.
- In Palauaun, mengeald is the verb 'to heat,' and mekeald is the resulting state verb corresponding to the English adjective hot.
Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:
|seliik||, v.r.s.||(object or person) looked for or searched for or having been sought after.|
seliik a mla mesiik; mla metik, rrechorech el udoud a seliik; smiik; skel.
|telab||, v.r.s.||(ear, nose) pierced for ring etc.|
|telbotb||, v.r.s.||(long object) divided or split into small pieces, strips.|
telbotb a mla metbotb; tibetbii a olukl, melbotb a besebes; tibotb, tbetbel.
|telechemakl||, v.r.s.||stuffed; crammed.|
telechemakl a mla metechemakl; mla mo mui; tuchemakl a ngerel er a kall; tuchemeklii a butiliang er a chutem; techemeklel.
Palauan Anticipating State Verbs
Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:
|bertachel||, v.a.s.||(hands) are to be clapped; is to be slapped; deaf (i.e., has to be tapped on the back to get attention).|
bertachel a kirel el obrotech; mertechii, mrotech, mechad a bertachel.
|chedechuall||, v.a.s.||is to be fixed/arranged.|
chedechuall a udesuall; kirel el mechedechuul; chodechulii a smecher el mo er a osbitar; mengedechuul er a rengeasek el mo bekengerachel.
|kesiil||, v.a.s.||(coconut or taro) is to be grated or scraped.|
kesiil a kirel el mekes; menges a lius, kesiil a kles er a klechedaol, kosir, kmes a kles, kesil.
|kimungall||, v.a.s.||(person) is to have head shaven.|
kimungall a kirel el mekemuu; metamk a bdelul, kimungii el mo diak a chiul, klemuu, kimungel.
|ochebngall||, v.a.s.||is to be brought to surface of water.|
ochebngall a kirel el mochob; mei er a bab; olechob er a mlai, ochebngii a ert el mei er a bebul a daob; ochebngel.
State Verbs with Related Nouns
In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.
This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.
Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.
|chemadech||coconut sap.||chemadech||coconut sap.|
|cheleched||small sea crab.||cheleched||ambidextrous.|
|temamuu||imaginary ghost with ugly face.||temamuu||imaginary ghost with ugly face.|
|klukuk||tomorrow; the next or following day.||klukuk||be tomorrow; be the next or following day.|
|sikt||cluster/bunch of fruit.||mesikt||be in a cluster (used only in mesikt el btuch).|
|sing||odor of sperm.||besing||smell of sperm; smell unclean (esp., used in insults referring to women).|
Reng Idioms as Adjectives
There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:
|smiich a rengul||feel proud about (someone).|
|diak a rengul||inconsiderate; impolite.|
|omichoech a rengul||(stomach) grumble, talk or gurgle (especially from hunger); (person) feel excited.|
|mengesib er a rengul||get someone angry.|
|luut er a rengul||anything causing one to lose one's resolve.|
|olsarech er a rengul||hold in or control emotions, anger etc.|
|dmeu a rengul||happy; glad; joyful; appreciative.|