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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blengkangk, v.r.s.laid or lying down on ground (in disarray); (tide) low.
blengkangk a ngar eou; meched, kerrekar a blengkangk, chei a blengkangk.
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cheluchet, v.r.s.chewed on.
cheluchet a mla mechuchet; chuchetii, chemuchet a deb, chechetel, menguchet.
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klloaol, v.r.s.grabbed at and squeezed or kneaded; (taro patch) prepared.
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selemengt, v.r.s.cemented; (limb) in a cast.
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uldob, v.r.s.dropped through hole; delayed.
uldob a mla modob; ulrebet er a delongelel; oles a uldob er a chemrungel; odebengii, odebengel.
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ules, v.r.s.seen; looked at.
ules a mla moues; mechuiu; babier er a chutem a ules; omes, osengel.
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ultilech, v.r.s.has had something put on top of it.
ultilech a ulsarech, mla motilech, ultilech er a mlai; mlai a ngar er a bebul; otelechii.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

dirkall, v.a.s.is to be looked at in a mirror.
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esemall, v.a.s.is to be tried out/challenged.
esemall a kirel el measem; meues el mo ungil, kirel mo er a omelasem er a uchei er a bo ltobed; esemii, esemel a ngloik.
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ochisall, v.a.s.(new) is to be announced or told.
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oterechall, v.a.s.is to be made to slip.
oterechall a rullii el mo ketiterachel; kirel el motorech; diak el oterechall a rael; otorech, oterechel.
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sebechekill, v.a.s.is to be defended or helped.
sebechekill a kirel el mesebechakl, sobecheklii, odesebii, ngoseuir, buik a sebechekill, sebecheklel.
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suisall, v.a.s.(match) is to be struck/lighted.
mases a suisall; meleuis er a mases.
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utechedall, v.a.s.(spearhead) is to have barbs made; is to be jerked or pulled.
utechedall a kirel el mutoched; locha techedel; mtoched a biskang, mtechedii a ongerekor; utechedel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
bidokelhives.bidokelhives.
builmoon; month.builmoon; month.
chemanglarge sea or mangrove crab; Samoan crab.bekechemangsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs).
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
kemangetlength (of string, etc.) which exceeds what is needed or expected.kemangettall; long (in time or dimension).
uidglue; resin; fuel for lamp.muduidsticky; adhesive.
meduumale genitals (large).meduubreadfruit.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
diak lodengelii a rengul(person) unaware of his limitations or overestimates his abilities or overextends himself with committments.
urrechomel a rengulindecisive.
moalech a renguldisappointed; dismayed.
chetellaok a rengulchetellaok
ralmetaoch a rengulinsensitive; not easily affected; easygoing; casual; prone to avoiding responsibility.
checherd a rengulimpatient; fed up with.
mengeokl er a rengulburden; bother; cause concern; weigh on.

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