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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

chelirocher, v.r.s.bent into a hook.
chelirocher a mla mechirocher, rruul el chirocher, choirecherii, choirocher a chiul, chircherel.
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delechel, v.r.s.increased or raised in amount.
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deluingel, v.r.s.(teeth) blackened.
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klsai, v.r.s.decreased; reduced.
klsai a kesai; ngelsonges; klsai er a rechad er a Belau.
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telbotb, v.r.s.(long object) divided or split into small pieces, strips.
telbotb a mla metbotb; tibetbii a olukl, melbotb a besebes; tibotb, tbetbel.
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ulimoim, v.r.s.lowered; (boat) moved out to deep water.
ulimoim a mla moimoim; ngar bab el mei; oimimii, oimoim a mengur, "menga ulimoim" a menga a ulechar e merael el kall, oimimel.
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ultiil, v.r.s.leaned or laid against; lying down.
ultiil a ultuil; ngalek a ultiil er a demal; otilii, otiil, otilel er a demal.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bitall, v.a.s.(sugar cane) is to be cut.
bitall a biatel; kirel el obuit, mitii, deb a bitall, omuit a deb, bitel.
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chetekill, v.a.s.is to be held or led by the hand; is to be carried, towed or persuaded; easily persuaded; (woman) easily seduced.
chetekill a beot el mechetakl; di ngera e ng mechetakl; diak a uldesuel; di remurt a ngor; choteklii, cheteklel.
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dekedakel, v.a.s.is to be cut or sliced.
dekedakel a kirel el medekodek; mesekosek, dokodek a ngikel, sokosek, melebes.
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ngemetall, v.a.s.is to be licked.
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odkelall, v.a.s.is to be made to move; (person) is to be made active.
odkelall a kirel el modikel; mesaik a odkelall, odkelii; rullii el mo ouedikel; odkelel.
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tebakel, v.a.s.is to be patched; (fine) is to be paid.
tebakel a kirel el metabek; tuabek a selodel el bail; tobekii, tebekel.
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utiil, v.a.s.is to be put over fire; is to be put or placed; is to be pounded into ground.
utiil a ngklel a irimd. utiil a klalo el kirel el mouat; omat a irimd; melai a mekoll er a budel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

kemimstarfruit.mekemimsour; acidic; spoiled (from having turned sour).
brakgiant yellow swamp taro.brakgiant yellow swamp taro.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedambidextrous.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallPalauan money in form of green or blue glass beads.
ureorwork; job; task.bekureorwork a lot; hard-working; diligent.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

klou er a renguldetermined.
seitak a rengul(person is) very choosy; picky.
techetech a rengulstubborn; obsessed; determined.
smiich a rengulfeel proud about (someone).
bliochel a rengulsincere; open-minded.
mengerar er a rengul criticise; insult; put down; make someone feel ashamed; hurt someone's feelings.
kedeb a rengulshort tempered; impatient.

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