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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bludech, v.r.s.bound into sheaves; pacified.
bludech a mla obudech; mdechii, bludech el beluu a chimo ngerel; ngar ngii a kltalreng; bdechel a beluu.
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cheluchet, v.r.s.chewed on.
cheluchet a mla mechuchet; chuchetii, chemuchet a deb, chechetel, menguchet.
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deluingel, v.r.s.(teeth) blackened.
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seluis, v.r.s.(match) struck or lighted.
seluis a mla meseuis; siuesur a mases; meleuis er a seuis; siuesul.
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telechelbakl, v.r.s.dived into.
telechelbakl a mla metechelbakl; te mla melechelbakl er ngii; Ngeremechiuch a techelbeklel.
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ulalk, v.r.s.dyed purple; purple color/dye; pandanus dyed purple.
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uldellomel a rengul, v.r.s.responsible; purposeful; mature.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bengkengkall, v.a.s.is to be laid on ground.
bengkengkall a kirel el obengkangk; mengkengkii a bambuu, mengkangk a kerrekar, mo blengkangk, bengkengkel.
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chetimall, v.a.s.is to be smeared or spread on.
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dengeball, v.a.s.is to be covered.
dengeball a dengobel, kirel el medangeb; melangeb er ngii, dongebii, duangeb a olekang; dengebel
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kdemall, v.a.s.are to be placed close together in space or time.
kdemall a kirel mo mekudem; kudemii, kuudem a sersel a merechorech, kdemel.
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okdengerechall, v.a.s.is to be placed or set rightside up; is to be turned face up.
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otebedall, v.a.s.is to be taken out.
otebedall a kirel el motobed el mo er a kirel, otebedii er a delengchokl, otobed, otebedel.
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udiuul, v.a.s.is to be pulled in.
udiuul a kirel el mudai; mengurs er ngii el oba udai; omdai er ngii; telemall el ert a udiuul.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chemanglarge sea or mangrove crab; Samoan crab.bekechemangsmell of crabs (after cooking or eating crabs).
chimhand; arm; front paws (of animal); help; assistance; manual labor; person sent to help.chimempty-handed.
kldolsfatness; thickness.kedols(round object) fat, thick or wide. Commonly used to describe betelnuts and coconuts.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
kosuiperfume.bekekosuismell strongly of perfume.
chadman; person; human being; living being; someone; somebody; anyone; anybody.chadliver.
chiukl(singing) voice.cheiukl(person) having a good singing voice.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
llemesel a rengulhis/her/its intelligence.
mengesib er a rengul get someone angry.
smiich a rengulfeel proud about (someone).
chelimimii a rengulsullen; obstinate; uncooperative.
bekokuii a rengulkind; generous.
blotech a rengulpleased; satisfied; appeased.
orreked er a rengulrestrain or control (oneself) (esp., from showing anger).

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