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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blang, v.r.s.(spear) thrown so that it skips along ground or surface of water.
blang a biskang el oba el omang er ngii.
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blsiul, v.r.s.(person) well advised or guided; brainwashed.
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delechel, v.r.s.increased or raised in amount.
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ilild, v.r.s.(fruit, tapioca, taro, etc.) peeled.
ilild a nglai a budel; mla meild, ildii a diokang, imild a diokang, ildel.
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klit, v.r.s.pressed with fingers and massaged; pressed against surface with fingers; softened; (fruit) soft (after hitting ground).
klit a mla mekit; ulet, blet a techel, kmit, ulkel a klit me ng meringel, kitir.
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uldai, v.r.s.pulled in.
uldai a mla mudai; mla mekurs er a udai, mla motamet; bilas a mla mudai el mei er a cheldukl; udiil.
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ultut, v.r.s.suckled; nursed.
ultut a mla otutur; mla tmut, otutur a tolechoi; otutul.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

ldaol, v.a.s.(woman) is to have sexual intercourse.
ldaol a ldall.
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ochisall, v.a.s.(new) is to be announced or told.
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otebengall, v.a.s.is to be placed on raised surface.
otebengall a kirel el motab; oltab er a remeleboteb, otebengii e merolung, otebengel.
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oterebekall, v.a.s.is to be raped.
oterebekall a kirel el moterebek; mekull ng diak el oterebekall a rechad; oterebekii, oterebekel.
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remotel, v.a.s.is to be kneaded.
remotel a kirel meremet; rometii, ruemet a belsiich; brak a remotel; remetel.
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ukall, v.a.s.is to be cut or pushed down.
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uketkall, v.a.s.is to be reminded.
ukltkall a kirel el muklatk; omeklatk me lak lobes a klumech; mekltkii me lolim a kar, ukltkel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
chudelgrass.chudelgrass.
riklbold/violent behavior.meriklbold; violent; restless.
ngerachelduty; responsibility.bekengerachelresponsible; always attentive to one's duties or obligations.
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaube morning.
bidokelhives.bidokel broken out in hives.
tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.tangtikebikel(object) wobbly or in danger of falling over.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
bltkil a rengulone's affection/concern for.
rrou a rengulsuddenly confused or perplexed.
ngar er a bab a rengulconceited; disrespectful; proud; arrogant; haughty; snobbish.
becheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
bechedechudel a rengulirritable.
bekongesengasech a renguleasily angered; excitable.
ochemchuml a rengulseething inside with anger or hate.

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