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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bldechakl, v.r.s.thrown down (in fighting, etc.); let to drop.
bldechakl a mla obedechakl; medecheklii, sechelid a beldechakl er a chutem.
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bluit, v.r.s.(sugar cane) cut.
bluit a bliatel, mla obuit; mitii, muit, deb a nglai, bitel a deb.
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cheldelekelek, v.r.s.blackened; (face) slapped.
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chelebangel, v.r.s.facing towards (at close range); (person) faced with (problems, etc.); (person) looking forward to expecting (future event) (and having to deal with it).
chelebangel a mengebangel; chachuchau, chelebangel a kall, chebengelel.
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teloched, v.r.s.wounded or pricked with thorn.
teloched a telemall; teloched el chais a diak le merang me a lechub e ng cheleuid
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ulekbat, v.r.s.(something) hidden or hard to find.
ulekbat a meringel el osiik; bulis a omekbat er a olsiseb mekngit el kar er a Belau; ulekbat er a milosii a president; mla mukbat.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bengall, v.a.s.is to be broken or cracked.
bengall a kirel el obeu; beongel, mengii, meu a lius, omeu a lius, bengel.
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bsusall, v.a.s.is to be expanded or made to swell.
bsusall a kirel el obsuus; msusii, msuus a blauang, bkukall, bsusel.
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kmudel, v.a.s.(hair) is to be cut; (shrubs, etc.) are to be trimmed; (string, etc.) is to be cut.
kmudel a kirel el mekimd; chiuk a kmudel; buuch a mla tuobed a bngal me ng kmudel; kirel el mekimd, kemdel.
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ledokel, v.a.s.is to be stretched out or placed lengthwise.
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sikesall, v.a.s.(raft, canoe, etc.) is to be poled.
sikesall a kirel el mesikes; sikesii a mlai; smikes, melikes a brer; sikesel a brer.
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tuidel, v.a.s.is to be cut lengthwise or down the middle.
tuidel a kirel metiud; meliud er ngii; tiuedii a bobai; tmiud a brak, tudel.
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urechemall, v.a.s.is to be mixed.
urechemall a kirel murachem; omrachem a diokang er a brak, meruul a billum; urechemel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
lalechpus.bellachelpurulent; festering; (woman's genitals) unclean and smelly; (starchy food) too soft or slimy.
chetaubrief rain squall.chetaubrief rain squall.
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraom (fish) slightly spoiled.
omecherollwomb; uterus; place where animals breed; birth canal.bekecheroll(woman) fertile/having many children.
kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .kurstwitching (nervous disorder) .

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mellomes a rengulsmart; diligent.
diak a rengulinconsiderate; impolite.
mengaidesachel a rengulcompetitive.
kedeb a rengulshort tempered; impatient.
melib er a renguldecide; make up one's mind.
bekongesengasech a renguleasily angered; excitable.
kngtil a rengul(someone's) being mean or feeling sad or frustrated.

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