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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

berriid, v.r.s.scattered; spread; sown; dismantled.
berriid a diak le chelludel; mriid, rechad a berrid.
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delechodech, v.r.s.(person) speared or clubbed.
delechodech a mla medechodech; chellebed er a olechodech, chelebed er a mekemad.
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delolk, v.r.s.kicked; stomped.
delolk a mla medolk; selebek, sobekii, dolkii, melolk er ngii, delkel a mlai.
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iluchet, v.r.s.unhooked.
iluchet a mla meiuchet, nglai er a techerakl, meluchet er ngii.
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ulekerreu, v.r.s.(person or animal) taken care of or protected; obeyed; cared about; respected; obedient.
ulekerreu a klaubeltik el reng; kelatk, omecheliu a rechad; omekerreu a klauchd; ulekerreuil.
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ulngebeet, v.r.s.pushed under water; (wick of lamp) turned down.
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ulsiuekl, v.r.s.met; collided or hit into.
ulsiuekl a mla mosiuekl; klechedaol a ulsiuekl er a kerodel; osiueklii, osiuekl, osiueklel a klechedaol.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bekesall, v.a.s.(leg) is to be moved to walk.
bekesall a sebechel el obakes el imuu er ngii, makes, mekesii, bekesel.
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belochel, v.a.s.is to be shot with a slingshot.
belochel a kirel el obalech; belechall, melechii, omalech, malech, belechel.
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chedongall, v.a.s.is to be blessed or sanctified.
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chelechall, v.a.s.is to be favored or spoiled.
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okeradel, v.a.s.is to be lighted.
okeradel a kirel el mokard; mekerdii a olbidel; mekard, okerdel.
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rederdall, v.a.s.is to be stepped on; (bicycle) is to be peddled.
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temikel, v.a.s.is to be shaved or scraped.
temikel a kirel el mengai; kirel el metamk; tomkii; tuamk a chesemel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

brakgiant yellow swamp taro.brakhaving a vagina which stays dry during sexual intercourse.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
tutkwart on sole of foot; disease of kebui leaves.tutkwart on sole of foot; disease of kebui leaves.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedarea of shallow water (usually exposed at low tide and good for fishing).
ngerachelduty; responsibility.bekengerachelresponsible; always attentive to one's duties or obligations.
otordblunt-headed parrot fish.otord(person) having protruding forehead.
oreomelforest; woods.chereomel forested; covered with vegetation.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

bebeot a rengulrather undecided about something; not taking something too seriously.
seselkang a rengulbecoming bored or impatient.
smecher a rengulhomesick.
diak lemesim a rengulstick to one's convictions; not change one's mind.
dmeu a rengulhappy; glad; joyful; appreciative.
ralmetaoch a rengulinsensitive; not easily affected; easygoing; casual; prone to avoiding responsibility.
beot a renguleasygoing; nonchalant; unmotivated; lazy.

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