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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blsebosech, v.r.s.continually contradicted/opposed.
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chelidabel, v.r.s.hang onto with hands; hanging.
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deliukes, v.r.s.(food) divided or shared.
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kler, v.r.s.asked; inquired.
kler a mla meker; mla korir, mla kmer a tekoi, keril a secher.
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nglobt, v.r.s.(newborn baby) has had membrane washed off.
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ulekllomes, v.r.s.brightened; enlightened.
ulekllomes a mla mukllomes; diak el milkolk; mekllemesii a blai, mekllomes a reng; ukllemesel.
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ultoech, v.r.s.pierced or drilled through.
ultoech a mla motoech; mla mo chemolt; tmoech, otechii er a belsibs, ultoech er a bitang; otechel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bdechall, v.a.s.is to be vomited on.
bdechall a kirel el obudech, otobed a kllel, mudech a kllel, mdechii; kirel el omudech; mdechel.
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chiuall, v.a.s.is to be read or looked at closely.
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deakl, v.a.s.is to be criticized.
deakl a blil a deleakl; omelaes, dmesii a sikel; melaes er ngii, mesaik a deakl er a urreor, deleklel.
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lengiil, v.a.s.is to be borrowed.
lengiil a bedoel; kirel el meleng; kirel obed a udoud el mo cheral a mlai; lengiil a udoud er a bank.
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ongebetall, v.a.s.is to be pushed under water; (wick of lamp) is to be turned down.
ongebetall a kirel el mongebeet; mo kekerei e mo er eou; olengebeet a ngeriu er a seked.
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tematel, v.a.s.is to be straightened up.
tematel a smechekill; kirel el metamet; tometii a rengul; tuamet a chebirukel; temetel a cheldecheduch.
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tiuelechall, v.a.s.is to be thrown at with a stick.
tiuelechall a kirel el metiualech; tiuelechii a iedel; toiualech, meliualech a meradel, tiuelechel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechas
telengtungdwild tamarind; lead tree.telengtungdwoven with small weave.
bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.
singchwaist; pelvis; lower back.bekesingch
kudlouse.kdaolinfested with lice.
otekliklvertical support beam for buadel whose bottom end lis on imuul.oteklikllying down with feet in air.
kerisgoiter.kerisgoiter.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
mengeokl er a rengulburden; bother; cause concern; weigh on.
betik er a rengulone's beloved.
bekesbesebek a renguleasily worried; worrisome.
meched a rengulthirsty; impatient; prone to overreact; (deprived and) having strong desire for.
mekurt a rengul(someone's) feelings hurt.
ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
mechuached a rengulevil; mean; stubborn.

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