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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blingel, v.r.s.(boat) stranded by low tide or run aground.
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cherroakl, v.r.s.(ankle) twisted or sprained.
cherroakl a mla mocheroakl; ulechoid a ulengeruaol er a ochil, ulecheroakl.
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dellomel, v.r.s.planted.
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uldaoch, v.r.s.(sea) beaten with pole; (fruit) knocked down with pole.
uldaoch a mla mudaoch; mengai, iedel a uldaoch; medochii; medaoch, bedochel.
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ulekesebech, v.r.s.controlled; (price) lowered.
ulekesebech a telkib el mo er a bab me a lechub eou; mla mokesebech; mekesebechii a iklel; mekesebech a oruikl e osiik a soal.
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ultechakl, v.r.s.intimated; insinuated; stuck (on beach against dock, etc.) after floating ashore; staying in another house or village.
ultechakl a mla motechakl; diall a mla oberius el mei motechakl er a chelmoll; metecheklii otecheklel. Delengchokl me a lechub eng chad el mo ultuil er a ta er a delengchokl e leng chelitechetul a delengcheklel, el omid a ngamk e chui el klauchad.
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ulteremed, v.r.s.pressed down; crushed.
ulteremed a mla moteremed; marek el sausab a ulteremed; blet, otermedel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bekengall, v.a.s.is to be opened or spread apart.
bekengall a kirel el obok; mkisii, omok a medal, mekengii a chesimer, bekengel.
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blsall, v.a.s.is to be punished for having violated a restriction.
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chesuertall, v.a.s.is to be covered with asphalt.
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ochisall, v.a.s.is to be emptied.
ochisall a kirel el mochis; diak el ochisall a ollumel, di kirel el ngar ngii a ilumel; ochisir a klengoes.
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okedusall, v.a.s.is to be laid, put or knocked down; is to be put to bed.
okedusall a kirel el mokedurs; mechiuaiu, smecher a okedusall, mekedusii a ngalek, mekedurs, okedusel.
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sbochel, v.a.s.(branches, etc.) are to be broken off.
sbochel a kirel el mesibech; mengai el mei er eou; rechelel a iedel a sbochel, sibechii, suibech a rachel, sbechel
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smengtall, v.a.s.is to be cemented.
smengtall a kirel el mesmengt; simengtii, simengt a rael; smengtel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedambidextrous.
kesaiinsufficient quantity.kesaiinsufficient quantity.
tutaumorning; this morning.tutaumorning; this morning.
kelebusjail, prison.kelebusjailed; in jail; (child, etc.) undergoing punishment.
kullcyst; tumor.kullcyst; tumor.
kobesossea horse.kobesossea horse.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

mellomes a rengulsmart; diligent.
kedeb a rengulshort tempered; impatient.
chelemekl a rengul(person) holding a grudge; (person) strong, stubborn, persistent, determined.
telirem a rengulfeelings hurt.
mimokl a rengulbroad-minded.
bechedechudel a rengulirritable.
bebeot a rengulrather undecided about something; not taking something too seriously.

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