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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

cheldereder, v.r.s.explained.
cheldereder a selaod; mla mechedereder me ng medengei;. chederderel.
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cherroakl, v.r.s.(ankle) twisted or sprained.
cherroakl a mla mocheroakl; ulechoid a ulengeruaol er a ochil, ulecheroakl.
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delengesakl, v.r.s.(person or thing) under a spell.
delengesakl a mla medengesakl; chad a mla melengesakl er ngii; olengit a mekngit el kirel; dongeseklii er a chelid.
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nglader, v.r.s.sent or seen off; returned; sent back; (bride) brought to prospective husband family.
nglader a mla mengader; mla ngoderii; ngelekel a nglader; ngederel
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seluis, v.r.s.(match) struck or lighted.
seluis a mla meseuis; siuesur a mases; meleuis er a seuis; siuesul.
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ulsisechakl, v.r.s.taught; instructed; trained.
ulsisechakl a a meduch; mla mosisechakl; ulekrael, ulsisechakl er a mera el tekoi, ulsisecheklel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bdechall, v.a.s.are to be bound into sheaves/pacified.
bdechall a kirel el obudech, omudech, rullii a budech er a beluu, rullii a kltalreng er a rechad; bdechel.
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besebesechall, v.a.s.is to be continually contradicted/opposed.
besebesechall a kirel el obosech; mesechii, torebengii, omesebosech er ngii.
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betochel, v.a.s.is to be thrown at, pounded or cracked.
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chesbecheball, v.a.s.(boat) is to have boards of frame put on.
chesbecheball a kirel el mechesbocheb, morngii a chesbocheb, chosbechebii a kboub, mengesbocheb.
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dengesekill, v.a.s.(person or thing) is to be put under a spell.
dengesekill a kirel el medengesakl; kirel medebeakl; dongeseklii er a chelid, omelengesakl a rechad a mekull; dengeseklel.
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kitall, v.a.s.is to be pressed with fingers and massaged; is to be pressed against surface with fingers; is to be softened.
kitall a kirel mekit; mengit er ngii; omet el mesisiich.
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ngetachel, v.a.s.is to be cleaned, scrubbed or washed.
ngetachel a kirel el mengatech; ngotechii; ngmatech a mlai; ngetechel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
dechudechdirt; mud; patching material; filling (for cavity).dechudech dirty; muddy.
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple colored sweet potato.
beraomfish kept until slightly spoiled and then wrapped and barbequed.beraom (fish) slightly spoiled.
silssun; day.bekesils(boys) smell sweaty or gamey (after perspiring in sun).
bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).bisechwild taro (makes mouth itchy).
smuuchscorpion fish (hardly moves in water).smuuch(person) calm, placid, or unperturbed by problems or challenging circumstances.
chemaiongdragonfly.chemaiongdragonfly.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
ngodech er a rengulfind something strange, different or suspicious.
bltkil a rengulone's affection/concern for.
rengul a ngaisyolk of egg.
ungil a rengulhappy; glad; kind.
derengulalso, used a as friendly expression of envy.
moded a rengul(person is) easygoing/even-tempered.
mechitechut a rengulweak willed; unmotivated; easily discouraged.

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