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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blechidel, v.r.s.broken off; broken into pieces.
blechidel a blached.
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blekall, v.r.s.driven; sailed; (person) driven by desire to wander or spend time away from home.
blekall a mla obekall; mekellii a mlai, rengeasek a blekall er a ungil klebesei.
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ileleb, v.r.s.overgrown (with foliage); flooded; under water; covered (with blanket, etc.).
ileleb a delekedek; mla meeleb; ralm iueleb a dait er a mesei; rael a ileleb er a ralm.
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ilsechem, v.r.s.held or grasped firmly.
ilsechem a orreked; ilsechomel, isechemii a udoud, isechem a kar, isechemel.
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rrakl, v.r.s.picked up out of pot.
rrakl a nglakr; nglai er a olekang; mla mengakr; ngokrii, ngkrel a ngeliokl el kukau.
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telebenged, v.r.s.(female) having had sexual intercourse from rear.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bungall, v.a.s.(round object) is to be broken, smashed or shattered; (bomb) is to be exploded.
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cheatel, v.a.s.(rope; wire; fishing line; etc.) is to be wound; (baby) is to be cuddled.
cheatel a kirel el mechaet; chemetii, chemaet a ekil, mengaet, chetel.
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chetuotel, v.a.s.(headware) to be put on; to be inserted or stuck into or onto; to be impaled or plugged in.
chetuotel a klalo el rruul el mechetiut; klalo, lkou a chetuotel; mengetiut a lochang; otuu; osiseb; chetutel, chetutall.
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kekerongel, v.a.s.is to be watched over or guided.
kekerongel a kirel el mekekar, omes er ngii; me lak le metemall; kokerengii a blil a kelebus, kokar a bangk, mengkar, kekerengel a bang
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ongemekall, v.a.s.is to be pushed out with effort.
ongemekall a kirel mongemek, ongemek er a dechil; ngemekel a cheroll; ongemekii.
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serochel, v.a.s.is to be stepped on, toured or visited.
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tirterall, v.a.s.is to be hunted or investigated.
tirterall a siokel; kirel el meteriter; tirterii a klemerang; tiriter a ungil, merriter a tekoi; tirterel.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

mekealdhot water; hot drink (esp., coffee).mekeald warm; hot.
bausmell; odor; scent.bekebau(cooked meat or fish, cooking pot, etc.) foul-smelling.
choalechsea urchin.choalechsea urchin.
ngerachelduty; responsibility.bekengerachelresponsible; always attentive to one's duties or obligations.
iluodelstones, coconut shells, or similar objects used as support for cooking pot during serving.iluodel(people) sitting, standing or arranged in a circle; (stone platform) built circular.
chermallhibiscus (bark used as a rope; leaves used as mulch for taro).chermallPalauan money in form of green or blue glass beads.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

mechas a rengulbe surprised at.
menglou er a rengultry to make (someone, oneself) patient; assure; take edge of one's hunger.
tuobed a rengulone's real feelings come out.
omsa a llechul a rengulteach (someone) a lesson.
bechedechudel a rengulirritable.
beltik a rengulbetik a rengul
omech er a rengultake the edge of one's hunger.

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