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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

blodech, v.r.s.(canoe, boat, etc.) has curve made in it.
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delemedemek, v.r.s.softened; weakened; tenderized; calmed.
delemedemek a rruul el medemedemek; mechitechut; diak el medecherecher; domedemekii a kall, delemedemekel.
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kldidai, v.r.s.made higher; piled up.
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uldiuls, v.r.s.hidden in bushes, etc.
uldiuls a mla modiuls; berrotel er a delul a kerrekar, ngar er a delul a betok el klalo; osib a uldiuls er a tkul a sers; odilsel.
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uldoim, v.r.s.has odoim added to it; given odoim.
uldoim a ngar er ngii a odimel; uldoim a telochel, kles a uldoim; mdimii, mdoim, udimel.
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uldoud, v.r.s.given money; paid.
uldoud a mla mudoud; uldoud er a demal; mla ngmai a ududel; mdudii; mildudii; ududel.
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urrachem, v.r.s.mixed.
urrachem a modak; diokang a urrachem.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

butall, v.a.s.is to be piled/heaped up.
butall a kirel el obuut; mengedidai, omuut, mutii a chutem, koididai, muut a besbas, mengudel, butel.
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chesill, v.a.s.is to be get blackened with soot or ink.
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doechel, v.a.s.is to be cut or wounded.
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lkiil, v.a.s.(bottom of pot; basket) is to be lined with leaves; etc.
lkiil a kirel el melik; loia lkil; likir a chelais er a ngimes, lmik, lkil.
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oterechall, v.a.s.is to be made to slip.
oterechall a rullii el mo ketiterachel; kirel el motorech; diak el oterechall a rael; otorech, oterechel.
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techeball, v.a.s.is to be removed/scraped up/cut out/uprooted.
techeball a techibel; kirel el metecheb; nguu a belsiich er a ngot, tochebii a nguu el rokir, nguu er a uchul.
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ungkill, v.a.s.is to be named.
ungkill a kirel el mungakl; mngeklii, loia a ngklel; omngakl er ngii; tolechoi a ungkill.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
tangtikebikelsee-saw; teeter-totter.tangtikebikel(object) wobbly or in danger of falling over.
chadliver.chedengaolsick with jaundice.
singodor of sperm.besingsmell of sperm; smell unclean (esp., used in insults referring to women).
bengtpurple colored sweet potato.bengtpurple.
baikingdisease; germs.baikingdisease; germs.
britelshakiness; jitters.britel(person) shaky/jittery.
bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.bikodelbroken out in hives.

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
ouuchel er a rengulregret.
kersos a rengulyearning; anxious (to see).
sisiokel a rengulfastidious; particular.
ouralmesils a rengulweak-willed.
klou er a renguldetermined.
omult er a rengulconvince; persuade.
seitak a rengul(person is) very choosy; picky.

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