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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

kellulau, v.r.s.whispered to.
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telberechel, v.r.s.having acted tough.
teleberechel a mekekeam; odikel; merechereched e klou a ngerel; teleberechelel.
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uldik, v.r.s.banished; exiled; sent away.
uldik a ultobed; mla modik; mla motobed, odikii er a blai; mla dmik; odikel.
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ulekrames, v.r.s.made far apart.
ulekrames a mla mukrames; merames; diak el mekudem; dait a ulekrames a delemel.
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ulengaok, v.r.s.whistled to.
ulengaok a mla mongaok; mla ongokii a ngaok; ongaok, ngokel, ongokel.
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ulsarech, v.r.s.pressed down; pinned onto.
ulsarech a ulsongeb er eou; mla mosarech; ngar er a ulsarechg er a oberaod; oserechii, osarech, oserechel.
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ultebechel, v.r.s.held steady; controlled; confirmed; moored; (person) certain or sure to; (person) serious or responsible.
ultebechel a mla mutebechel; ulterekokl; diak el beot el mesim; mtebechelii a taem, mtebechel a tekoi, utebechelel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

chiikel, v.a.s.(leaves) are to be plucked or stripped off plant.
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chiuertall, v.a.s.is to be beaten (with stick, club, etc.).
chiuertall a chelebodel; kirel el mechiuert,mechelebed, choiuertii, mekull el diak le chiuertall a chad.
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doechel, v.a.s.is to be cut or wounded.
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kilungall, v.a.s.is to be enlarged or increased in size.
kilungall a kirel el mo klou; osarech a rengmiu; menglou, mo kiei a rengmiu; rengud a rechad a kilungall, kilungii a rengum, mo diak el sebek a rengum; kilungel a reng.
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rdall, v.a.s.(flowers, etc.) are to be picked.
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sechudel, v.a.s.temporarily crippled (by muscle cramp, etc.).
sechudel a rekdel a ouach; mekngit el merael; tingoi a ochil; sechedelel.
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tbaol, v.a.s.is to be spat on.
tbaol a kirel el metub; tub, tbal, tubar, ng diak el tbaol a smengt.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

kobengodelvery strong current.kobengodelvery strong current.
teberoishin; (large, triangle-shaped) coconut candy.teberoibow-legged.
rechorechstealing; theft; robbery; selfishness.sekerechorechprone to stealing.
singodor of sperm.besingsmell of sperm; smell unclean (esp., used in insults referring to women).
siktcluster/bunch of fruit.mesiktbe in a cluster (used only in mesikt el btuch).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

smiich a rengulfeel proud about (someone).
mekeald a rengulfeel hot inside.
seitak a rengul(person is) very choosy; picky.
teloadel a rengulindecisive.
bletengel a rengulnonchalance; laziness.
turk a rengulturk
ulsemuul a rengul(person) humble.

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