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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

bloes, v.r.s.shot.
bloes a bleakl; mla oboes, mosii, belochel a bloes, omoes, bosel.
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bludech, v.r.s.bound into sheaves; pacified.
bludech a mla obudech; mdechii, bludech el beluu a chimo ngerel; ngar ngii a kltalreng; bdechel a beluu.
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delub, v.r.s.bombed; dynamited; poisoned (esp., with hard drugs).
delub a mla medub; dubar, duub, melub a omriid a bad el ousbech a dub, dbal a klou el risois.
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kerreel, v.r.s.rolled; (fish) caught with line.
kerreel a suld el mla mekereel; kerrelel.
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nglimet, v.r.s.bailed.
nglimet a mla mengimet; mlai a nglimet; diak a ngmatel er ngii.
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selloakl, v.r.s.grabbed at and shaken or stirred.
selloakl a mla meseloakl; mla mesalo; rrutech er a betok el chim; selloakl el kall a olsecher; soleueklii; solouakl.
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telotech, v.r.s.seized; grabbed.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bliil, v.a.s.is to be regulated or restricted.
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chetuul, v.a.s.(fish) smoked; having the potential of giving off too much smoke.
chetuul a kirel el mechat; techa mengat a ngikel? chotur, chemat a ngikel, chetul.
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chiikel, v.a.s.(leaves) are to be plucked or stripped off plant.
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dengechel, v.a.s.is to be set aside, recognized, distinguished or to be mounded.
dengechel a kirel el medangch; omuut a chutem er a uchul a iedel; dongchii a tuu er a chutem.
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diberdall, v.a.s.is to be laid crosswise.
diberdall kirel el medbard; diak le llemolem; mo delbard, diberdii a bambuu er a rael el melenget.
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otidall, v.a.s.is to be made to ejaculate or brought to climax.
otidall a kirel el motiid; rullii el otobed a tiid, tidel.
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usall, v.a.s.is to be ordered/imported.
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

Palauan_NounEngish_NounPalauan_AdjEnglish_Adj
klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.klukuktomorrow; the next or following day.
kekeuathlete's foot; tinea.kekeuathlete's foot; tinea.
idokeldirtiness; filthiness.idokeldirtiness; filthiness.
uloechspear(?).uloech(person) in a hurry to go somewhere.
kamangsickle.kamangtwisted, crippled.
chelechedsmall sea crab.chelechedambidextrous.
ngulasthma.kesengliilasthmatic (permanent condition).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

PalauanEnglish
berngel a rengulanything discouraging to one's spirit.
orrechorech a rengulextremely angry; wild with anger.
olsarech er a rengulhold in or control emotions, anger etc.
melamet er a renguldo things as one pleases.
mesubed a rengulaccept; be resigned to; learn a lesson; learn from experience.
bebeot a rengulrather undecided about something; not taking something too seriously.
meduch a rengulhard-working; conscientious; strong-willed; persevering.

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