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Palauan Adjectives

The following is a brief discussion about Palauan adjectives. For a longer exploration, please refer to discussions of state verbs in the Joseph Handbooks. According to the official Lewis Joseph grammar book of Palauan, there are no Palauan parts of speech called adjectives. However, Palauan does, of course, have words used to describe other words. In English, we call these words adjectives. Examples of English adjectives are dangerous, beautiful, and hot.

Palauan Resulting State Verbs

In Palauan, words corresponding to English adjectives are called state verbs. There are several types of Palauan state verbs. The most common are resulting state verbs which occur as a result of a verb. Some examples:

Here is a list of seven random Palauan verbs and their resulting state verbs:

ilasem, v.r.s.tried out; challenged.
ilasem a mla measem; ulsemuul, esemii a ngloik, melasem.
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nglaml, v.r.s.(grass, garden, yard etc.) cut.
nglaml a nglemull; mla mengaml; ngomlii a rael; nguaml, melaml, ngemlel.
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uldob, v.r.s.dropped through hole; delayed.
uldob a mla modob; ulrebet er a delongelel; oles a uldob er a chemrungel; odebengii, odebengel.
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ulekiid, v.r.s.consumed; used; eaten up.
ulekiid a mla mokiid; mla mo diak; mla mekang a kall; okiid a kall me a illumel; mekikiid a blai; bechachau.
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uliit, v.r.s.deflected; turned away.
uliit a mla moiit; mla imiit er a rael; diak lokiu a rolel; cheleuid a osisecheklel er a ochur a uliit, ietel a osisechakl.
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ultuil, v.r.s.laid down; lying down; dependent on.
ultuil a mla motuiil; otilii a bdelul er a tebel e olengull; ulsirs; otilel.
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Palauan Anticipating State Verbs

Anticipating state verbs in Palauan are like resulting state verbs. However, instead of describing the state of something after a verb has modified it, these describe the state of something before a verb is anticipated to modify it. Here's seven random Anticipating State Verbs:

bitall, v.a.s.(sugar cane) is to be cut.
bitall a biatel; kirel el obuit, mitii, deb a bitall, omuit a deb, bitel.
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cherungall, v.a.s.is to be made whole, completed or perfected.
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kereoll, v.a.s.is to be rolled.
kereoll a kirel el mekereel; korelii, mengereel a suld, koreel a suld; kerelel a suld.
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ngebtall, v.a.s.(newborn baby) is to have membrane washed off.
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odengesall, v.a.s.is to be praised or honored; praiseworthy.
odengesall a kirel a chetengakl; kirel el modanges; odengesii a ungil merreder; odanges, odengesel.
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rekill, v.a.s.is to be picked up out of pot.
rekill a kirel el mengakr; ngeliokl a rekill; merakl, ngmakr a ngeliokl; mla mengakr.
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siokel, v.a.s.is to be looked or sought for.
siokel a kirel el mesiik; osiik er a mo menguteling er a buai; siekii; skel
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State Verbs with Related Nouns

In English, a common thing to do is to ask 'how XXXX is something,' where XXXX is an adjective. For example, 'how hot is that,' or 'how dangerous is that,' are common English expressions.

This is true in Palauan as well in a form like, 'ng uangarang a kleldelel,' which translates literally perhaps to something like, 'it is like what, its heat,' or figuratively as, 'how hot is it.' The word kleldelel is a possessed noun meaning 'its heat.' See the nouns page for a longer explanation of possessed nouns.

Many of these Palauan nouns have related state verbs which translate to, and are used as, English adjectives. Here is a list of seven random Palauan nouns along with their corresponding state verbs.

temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.
bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.bikodelhives or rash from allergies; allergic reaction affecting the skin.
mechasold woman; titled woman; foreign woman; male's father's sisters; girlfriend; wife.mechascoconut at later stage (between medecheduch and metau) when shell blackens and husk turns yellowish brown.
olechutellarge bamboo raftolechutellarge bamboo raft
temamuuimaginary ghost with ugly face.temamuubald-headed.
siktcluster/bunch of fruit.mesiktbe in a cluster (used only in mesikt el btuch).

Reng Idioms as Adjectives

There are many Palauan expressions which use a state verb to describe the Palauan word reng which means spirit or heart. These are idioms which mean their literal and figurative meanings are not the same. Typically, but not always, the figurative meaning describes an emotion. An example is kesib a reng, which literally means a sweaty heart but figuratively it means to be angry. Here is a list of seven random examples of these reng idioms:

ungil er a rengulfine or all right with.
blosech a rengulhaving strange feelings about; be suspicious of.
merirem er a rengulhurt someone's feelings.
cheremremangel a rengulgreedy; stingy.
rengul a kerrekarcenter/core of tree.
seselkang a rengulbecoming bored or impatient.
bechecherd a rengulirascible; easily fed up with.

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